5th Annual International Symposium on Leisure & RecreationProgram (Athens Local Time)(In the program presentations are included from all the subjects scheduled to be presented in parallel)(Note: each presentation includes at least 10 minutes for questions and discussions if available)
Monday 11 May 2020
11.30-12.00 Opening and Welcoming Remarks:
Gregory T. Papanikos, President, ATINER.
John Pavlik, Professor, Rutgers University, USA.
Lucia Perez Perez, Professor, EAE Business School, Spain. Adoracion Merino Arribas, Professor, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, Spain. Title: The Implementation of Communication in an Anthropological Management Model. A Case Study of Picasso Museum.(PowerPoint)
This paper examines the implementation of communication in an Anthropological Management Model. The authors propose the prosocial model applied to communication, which is based on the opportunities offered by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Our purpose is to propose a management model that brings the idea of communication closer to the idea of service (“prosocial motivation”) and aligns it with the fulfillment of the own mission of the institution. According to this model, the organization develops its strategy of communication starting not from the information that you are interested in giving but of the communication oriented to what interests the public. This makes possible to achieve competitive efficiency in the current environment of globalization; and starts from the point of the fact that the museum is, above all, a community of people that relates to each other and to other people from abroad. We defend that the person, not only should be treated accordingly the dignity of the human being, rational and free but also, the knowledge of their motivations is essential for the communication management in order to reach the true objective of the institution, its mission. The methodology combines the Picasso Museum case study, focused interview and documentary analysis. The investigation reveals the benefits of applying a ‘prosocial’ management model in the communication strategy for effective interaction with the public and how this reinforces the effectiveness, attractiveness and unity of the institution.
12:30-13:00 Giuseppe Giuliano, Professor, Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Title: «Arquitectura» 1927-1988: History and Critics of a Portuguese Magazine.(PowerPoint)
The facilities used in communications are tools with which we are permanently in contact, both academically and professionally as in our free time. A transmission element of reality can condition behaviors and characterize an entire society. In case of architecture, it can be represent in different ways, just think about exhibitions, films, magazines and books. It is therefore important, when we talk about architecture, to make a careful analysis of all the forms of representations that can define their nature and main characteristics. Among all of them, a prominent place is certainly occupied by newspapers and specialized magazines, which help to the diffusion and deepening of architectural artefacts. The development of architecture in social communications – which developed in Portugal in the second half of century – is a phenomenon that detects the changes inside the society. The use of arts motivates the interest in architectural practice, bringing greater awareness of presence of the discipline. In the other side, is from specialized media that motivations, doubts and ideas of professional class can be learned. So, we can say, that is important the reporting of parallel events in our life inside the medias. The exhibitions, for example, which appear more frequently over the years, say that we are in a historic period in which the affirmation of the discipline does not take place only through the constructed work, but above all throug the comparison of ideas. The main facility of diffusion, newspapers, acts as a balance between the rules of communication and architecture. It seems so interesting to discover and deepen ways in which a disciplinary speech is constructed, that of architecture, using codes from another discipline, communication. This is a starting point for development of theme that constitutes the object of this work. So it was decided to analyze the magazine «Arquitectura», a fundamental tool for the training, debate and popularization of 20th century art and architecture in Portugal. The object of this work, which deals two hundred and fourteen magazines and more than two thousand articles, aims to recognize the value of magazine, both nationally and internationally, and to understand the network of influences that bring interest in portuguese architecture and not. The periodical, which was born under the Salazar dictatorship in January 1927 and closed in January 1988 in a climate of a new republic, is divided into five different series, which represent all historical periods: pre-war and birth of dictatorship (I series, 1927-1945), post-war (II series, 1946-1957), economic boom and the end of dictatorship (III series, 1957-1974), republic (IV and V series, 1979-1988). In this way the relationship that the magazine has with members and readers change over the years. «Arquitectura» was born, infacts, as a censored regime magazine, and then, thank to the changes of ownership (as the acquisition of ICAT in the end of 1940) it tries to create its own cultural indipendence, far from rigid totalitarian schemes. The proposed investigation starts from the origins of the magazine, passing through process of affirmation and development, analyzing each single series in relation to the historical and Portuguese context of the twentieth century.
13:00-13:30 Seda Mengu, Head, Public Relations Department, Istanbul University, Turkey. Title: Value-Based Communication during Covid19 Pandemic: A Study on the Twitter Messages of Turkish Ministry of Health. (PowerPoint)
Influencing the whole world by obliging people to change their daily practices along with their relations and assume different life styles, Covid-19 has brought about some likely deleterious effects in Turkey as well. Undoubtedly, it has caused disturbance and even panic in social and psychological sense. In such cases of uncertainty and panic, communication with the public should be clear, explicit, alleviating and to some extent, guiding. People can be guided and persuaded more easily as anxiety and ambiguity reduce. Such a leading and persuasive communication consists of various rules, regulations and collaborations. If respective collaboration is value-based, this process will be considerably smoother. In this sense, discourses towards the public during the outbreak of pandemic have been performed to maintain value-based collaboration. This approach has been successful as it has been based on daily life and the language of society. It should be noted that value-based collaboration as a new form of governance that resembles governmentality. Collaboration is controlled and guided by a set of rules such as procedures, traditions, norms and standards. Moreover, collaboration functions as a matter of participating in language games through which social and organizational realities are structured. In other words, organizational and social realities are formed, negotiated, shared and changed through interaction and collaboration. In fact, collaboration enables people not only to communicate, but also maintain mutual understanding and perform daily life practices. Value-based communication generally consists of being people oriented, quality, participation, sustainable communication, trust, transparency, conformity with ethical standards, continual research, susceptibility to needs, qualitative and qualitative as well as continuing education etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the messages sent by the Ministry of Health during the pandemic in Turkey via social media, particularly Twitter, in order to find out to which extent these messages encompass the features of value-based communication. Thus, discourse analysis and descriptive research model are going to be implemented together. More specifically, the first tweet in which Corona was first referred was sent on January 25, 2020 and from then on 505 Tweets were posted. For the discourse analysis, 100 tweets that have received the most interaction are going to be used. As for the other descriptive analyses; on the other hand, all 505 tweets are going to be utilized in cluster analysis.
13:30-14:00 Gabriella Velics, Associate Professor, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary. Title: Promising, Remarkable, Marginal – 30 Years of Community Broadcasting in Hungary.(PowerPoint)
The history of the Hungarian community broadcasting sector can be divided into four periods: before 1996, 1996-2002, 2002-2010, and since 2011. Each period is characterized by particular features embedded in media law. The presentation will show how legislation and regulation have an effect on operating and changing the Hungarian media system; mainly focusing on the conditions for the community radio broadcasting. The presentation based on data and statistics of the National Media and Infocommunications Authority, case studies and interviews with community radio practitioners. The first period was for making an attempt for open media environment with alternative voices, some even started operation without a proper license but had some social effects and made an undisputable status for community media. In the second period Act I of 1996 on the radio and television broadcast and the newly formed Hungarian Media Authority created a new situation, community radios were specified on financial base and called them a non-profit purpose programme provider. The strict conditions embroiled the community broadcasting into a serious crisis and community radio broadcasting lost its importance by the turn of millennium. This period was more prosperous for the commercial broadcasters both on regional and local level. The third period can be described as the golden era of small community radio. Limited coverage area with relatively simple legal and technical conditions resulted audience only in walking distance but human closeness in the respect of topics and emotions. This kind of community broadcasting offered a possibility for real social participation in rural areas, small cities, youth hostels, schools, etc. By the end of 2010 there were 68 small community radio stations across the country; it was a unique fact in Central and Eastern Europe. The fourth period started with Act CLXXXV of 2010 on media services and mass media, which came into force on 1 January 2011. This regulation changed every single aspect of the community radios’ life, and contains – contrary to the pervious regulation and EU declaration – an unconventional vision of community media. This widely criticized regulation demanded almost impossible requirements for the volunteer-based radio stations (regular information service, operating at least four-hour in every day, 66% public service content, 50% of the music played must be Hungarian, etc. with detailed paperwork and regular supplying of data). There was also a fear of losing the real principles of community radio and the altered practice (both licensing and financing) might easily lead to the disappearance of genuine community radio activity in Hungary as the community media landscape was dramatically overwhelmed by religious broadcasters. Mária Rádió, the Catholic Church and the Reformed Church established community radio stations all over the country with their specific feature: with one radio license using several frequencies on different areas. At the end of 2018 only 16 small community broadcasters remained in Hungary. 46 local frequencies (from total 147) were given to church radio broadcasters who operate with community radio status and benefits.
14:00-14:30 Gulhan Gundogdu, PhD Student, Istanbul Commerce University, Turkey. Title: From Dominant Perspective to Critical Perspective in Health Communication: Analysis of Turkish Television Health Programs in Terms of Critical Health Communication.(PowerPoint)
Health communication, which has become a discipline since the mid-twentieth century, has become more crucial especially with the complexness of healthcare applications and health information practices. This has led to an increase in the number of researches and academic studies in the field of health communication and also different approaches emerged regarding this debate. In this study, it will be discussed that the ongoing health communication practices, which we will call “dominant health communication”, do not provide a solution to the existing health inequality in the society, on the contrary, they provide the reproduction and dissemination of the ideologies of the sovereign powers and a consent for the consumption of health products and services in the society. Therefore in this study, health programs on mainstream television channels in Turkey will be analyzed in terms of critical health communication. Critical discourse analysis will be used as the main method of the study. Persistent television health programs in the mainstream Turkish media such as “HT Sağlık” and “Sağlık Raporu” will be analyzed using critical discourse analysis method for a period of 6 months. Additionally, in the context of the production of media messages; semi-structured interviews will be held with media professionals such as television health programs’ presenters and producers including health professionals attending these programs. Complementary analyze will consist of a reception study with 6 small groups watching aforesaid programs.
14:30-15:00 Antoine Badaoui, PhD Candidate, University of Leicester, UK. Title: LGBT Organizations and LGBT Social Media Visibility in Lebanon. (PowerPoint)
The LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) community in Lebanon has consistently experienced social and political homophobia. As a result, nonprofits foregrounding the rights of sexual minorities in the country face the challenge of reconciling the visibility required to achieve social justice and the invisibility that the community seeks for safety. My research focuses on LGBT nonprofits social media visibility in Lebanon. Increasing LGBT social media visibility in the country raises questions about the relationship between LGBT identity politics, neo-colonialism, local structures and traditions; and the role of social media in influencing this relationship. While highlighting the dynamics and the socio-cultural background local LGBT non-profits engage with to forge this visibility, I explore how these organisations make use of social media and how they actively listen (or not) to their stakeholders among the LGBT community. The latter are obliged to negotiate their online visibility as it can impact their day-to-day offline interactions in a country where homophobia is institutionalised.
15:00-17:00 Lunch Break
17:00-17:30 Brian Massey, Associate Professor, East Carolina University, USA. Title: Entrepreneurial Journalism and the Individual-Opportunity Nexus: A Critical Review.(PowerPoint)
One of the many effects of the “Schumpeter’s gale” of creative destruction (1943) now battering the corporatized news industry is the emergence of journalist-entrepreneurs who start their own news ventures. Most of these startups are digital natives, and in many ways they represent a return to journalism’s pre-corporate eras of the lone printer-publisher through to the family-owned community newspaper. Scholars have paid varying degrees of attention to various facets of this phenomenon. However, there is a paucity of theory-driven work that reveals the formative processes behind individual acts of entrepreneurial journalism. This paper aims to help bridge that gap by interrogating the extant literature on entrepreneurial journalism through Shane’s (2003) “Individual-Opportunity Nexus” model of entrepreneurship. The model sees the act of entrepreneurship as unfolding in four basic steps: (1) an opportunity comes into existence, (2) the entrepreneur discovers it, (3) makes plans to exploit it and (4) executes the plan. The goal of this paper is to critically review the literature in relation to each step to uncover what we know about the processes of entrepreneurial journalism, and to explore avenues for future research. This work is important for developing an understanding of the processes leading to the start of an independently owned, digitally native news venture.
17:30-18:00 Nicholas Pappas, Vice President of Academic Conferences and Meetings, ATINER & Professor of History, Sam Houston University, USA. Title: Sports and Theatre in Antiquity and the Origins of Modern Entertainment. (PowerPoint)
Athletics, spectator sports, theatre, and other pastimes have become a consuming activity in our own time. How did these and other diversions develop? Are their antecedents in the ancient world, especially in Greece and Rome? In this presentation, we will investigate the cultural roots and evolution of many types of entertainment, especially the Greek and Roman games, as well as theatre. Remember that the term culture comes from the Latin word cultus, so that some of these activities have their origins in religious festivals or rites. We will also look into the social, economic and political dimensions of entertainment in antiquity. Since the Greek Olympic Year of 2014, dozens of studies have appeared that have enriched our understanding of these themes. While we will be concentrating on Greece and Rome, we will also take glances of possible parallel developments in China, Egypt, Phoenicia, Byzantium, and elsewhere. Finally, we will study how these may have influenced modern entertainments and recreation.
18:00-18:30 Shawn Thompson, Assistant Professor, Thompson Rivers University, Canada. Title: The Lost Therapeutic Wisdom of the Early Interactive Socrates.(PowerPoint)
The Socrates of the early dialogues of Plato has a valuable wisdom that is lost, obscured, buried and distorted by the later dialogues and by the development of philosophy as a discipline in universities in the West. The Socrates of the early dialogues behaves like a self-appointed street therapist interacting with individuals to take them through a process that changes how they think from the inside, gaining their assent and co-operation in a joint endeavor, rather than imposing answers and solutions on them as an expert or authority. This Socrates plays to his audience, both those in the dialogue and those that Plato intends to be the invisible audience. This Socrates teases, he entices, he cajoles, he prods. He has no authority to make someone stop and listen. He has no position in an official forum, like an assembly hall, a temple, a court of law or an academy. The most this Socrates can do is weave a web of words that makes someone linger, deliberate and be lured into self-examination. The individuals that Socrates jousts with intellectually are figures well known to the audience of Plato and represent conventional intellectual, cultural and political positions that the contrary Socrates wants to tease and provoke out of the norms that the figures and their supporters endorse. Socrates’s use of paradox, dilemma and myth seeks to make thinkers begin to question their own conventions and norms. The early Socrates is thus mercurial, engaging, contrary, ironical, paradoxical, inconsistent, and can reverse himself unexpectedly, a behaviour that is more zen-like, more therapeutic, more interactive, more democratic. The approach resembles more an eastern inclusiveness that accepts paradox, dilemma and myth as part of what makes the nature of existence intelligible. The approach to thinking in the early dialogues does not filter reality so much through the kind of reductive, abstract, formulaic, western-style rationality that develops from the later Plato and is extended further through the institutionalizing of philosophy as a discipline in universities and in university texts. The Socrates of the later dialogues is a version of reality that is completed in a kind of westernized dogmatic rationality that polarizes student and teacher. It is an philosophy that is abstract, complicated, difficult to teach and difficult to apply outside academia to real-world experiences in real-world time. This paper will examine the therapeutic approach of the interactive early Socrates and the potential for its use in communication and education.
20:30-22:30 Greek Night (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Tuesday 12 May 2020
07:00-10:30 Urban Walk (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
11:30-12:00 Richard Bowyer, Senior Lecturer, University of Derby, UK. Title: Where Have All the Stories and Voices Gone in Local Newspapers? The Effect Falling Advertising Revenues and the Rise of the Web Have Had on UK Regional Newspapers.(PowerPoint)
The regional newspaper industry in the UK is in freefall with sales down more than 60 per cent in 10 years. With this decline has come cost-cutting. This study looks at how these cuts have manifested themselves in terms of the number of news stories now being printed in newspapers and the number of local people being quoted in the newspapers. The study has looked at a number of regional newspapers across 30 years to show the effect of the changing face of the newspaper business as the audience and advertising has moved online. The research includes interviews by experts on whether story count mattered and if fewer stories and local voices has damaged the product. This paper finds that generally newspaper companies with a web-first culture have been forced to reduce their local news content in their printed products as they concentrate their resources online. While fewer stories and voices cannot be blamed for the complete demise of the newspapers, it is a consequence of cost-cutting and disadvantages the product. Opinions do vary on the needs for high story count, but this paper shows that most experts believe it is important and that without it, newspapers have been terminally damaged.
Mihalis Kuyucu, Associate Professor, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey. Title: Effective Factors in Preferences of Students in favor of Foundation Universities Providing Paid Education in Turkey (PowerPoint)
Especially after 1980, Turkey has transitioned from social economic approach to a neo-liberal economy. In this context, privatization in Turkey’s economy has become widespread and many sectors held by the state have been opened to non-state capital owners. Privatizations were implemented in many areas in the 1990s, especially in media sector, and the state and private equity started to provide certain services for the community. In this process, capital owners were allowed to invest in areas such as media, health and education, and the number of businesses with private capital increased in these sectors. One of these sectors was the education sector. Especially in the eighties, there has been an increase in the number of privately owned colleges and high schools. Similar developments have occurred in higher education universities. Those who want to establish a privately owned university in Turkey have started to achieve these demands through a foundation. The establishment of privately owned universities under the foundation structure was first seen in 1984. Bilkent University, which is in Ankara, has become Turkey’s first non-state — with a private capital — foundation university. In the nineties, businessmen invested their capital in foundations. These foundations used this capital to open new universities. With this application, there has been a significant increase in the number of privately owned universities in Turkey. With rapidly increasing numbers in the 2000s, foundation universities, which provide paid education, have resulted in a competitive structure in the education sector. By 2020, it is announced that there are 129 state-affiliated universities in Turkey, while there are 78 privately owned foundation universities. In this study, a research was conducted on how state universities and private universities compete to attract students. Based on the survey administered to students, who preferred foundation universities that provide paid education, it was questioned what criteria were efficient in the decisions of students in preferring the foundation universities that provide paid education. As a result of the research, it was determined that the most important reasons for the university preferences of the candidate students were, respectively, the location of the university, tuition fees, scholarship opportunities, quality of education and opportunities for business life. The majority of students preferred the foundation universities; however, they stated that the promotion and advertisements of these universities did not have an impact on their preferences. On the other hand, it was revealed in the research that the media that is most effective in university preference is television ads and social media ads.
David Morrish, Senior Fashion Design Academic and Postgraduate Student, Sheffield Hallam University & Nottingham Trent University, UK. Title: Lake Windermere “Am I Still Beautiful?” – A Case Study, Looking into Developing an Archival Collection Process as a Methodology to Engage Participants in a Collaborative Creative Art Process.(PowerPoint)
This paper documents a post graduate research project titled, Lake Windermere “Am I Still Beautiful?” which is due for submission in June 2020 for award of MA in Fashion & Textiles at Nottingham Trent University. The aim of the project is to raise awareness, debate and conversation through the lens of participation via an organized marathon event and collaboration with a national group of embroiderers. The World Heritage site of the Lake District and the annual event of the Brathay Windermere Marathon are used as a platform for data collection. This paper demonstrates how smart mobile devices may be used to gather primary data, such as GPS tracking and photography in situ, whilst providing a framework describing how the output may then facilitate a meaningful collaborative and creative art process. There is little worse than visiting a beautiful place such as a national park and seeing litter; it detracts from the inspiration the place should give us. George Monck, chief executive of CleanupUK With the facilitator as both the artist and runner they were able to consciously and simultaneously select archivable material at identified stages along the running route; responding to both environmental and personal emotional factors. This primary research was then analysed and filtered post event by the reflective artist and re-presented through the production of a moving video and 26 static physical boxes, each representing one mile of the prescribed route. The archival boxes were individually interpreted by the artist and volunteer members of the Sheffield Embroidery Guild who are were challenged to respond to the selected contents of their given box, using hand & digital embroidery techniques as well as other textile manipulation methods. Each box personally connects to the runner through emotional recall and becomes an archival box of the runners phycological state of mind, performance, the event and the moment in time. Each embroiderer is provided with a structured framework to work within, but ultimately allowed to interpret the contents however they desire, adding an outsiders or spectators input and perspective of the event. Inspired by the Bayeux Tapestry, 1476, the 26 embroidered sections when pieced together will form a 26.2ft length “Embroidered tapestry” mirroring the elevation of the Windermere marathon across the routes geographical terrain. The final outcome not only pays homage to the runner and the grueling event itself, but tells the narrative of pollution, using the litter to “spoil” the beauty of its found environment, either blatantly or subtly. The tapestry is a testament to processes, traditional hand skills and new technologies, while the codesign collaborative approach bridges generations, associated skills sets and creative thinking within a social and sustainable context. “Pain is inevitable. Suffering is optional.”
Valerie Isabel Elss, Research Associate, Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), Germany. Johannes Treu, Professor, Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), Germany. Giovanni Buono , Guest Lecturer at LUMSA University and Co-Founder Fundsfy, Italy. Title: Interpretation of Cultural Heritage in the Context of Tourism.(PowerPoint)
This article presents a current EU project on the interpretation of European cultural heritage in the context of tourism. In
Europe, arou nd 453 cultural heritage sites are on the UNESCO World Heritage List (BMNT, 2018). Europe’s cultural heritage is very diverse. It is by no means just about museums, theatres or castles; tradition and customs are also part of Europe’s cultural heritage. As an essential part of the collective European memory, it is important to preserve this diversity. From an economic point of view, the preservation of cultural heritage is a crucial task for the future. Within the EU, more than 300,000 people work in the fie ld of cultural heritage, plus around 7.8 million jobs in the EU indirectly linked to cultural heritage (e.g. tourism; CHCfE consortium, How can European cultural heritage be used to promote tourism, especially in rural areas? EU project “MIECAT”: project objectives, methods and tasks In a 3 year research project funded by Erasmus+ (MIECAT Methodology of Interpretation of European Cultural Heritage through Attractions in Tourism ) six European universities are developing a study module (FHM Schwer in, the Economic University Prague, the Economic University Bratislava, the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, the University of Applied Sciences Burgenland and the Universidad Europea de Madrid). The module is intended to prepare students of tourism degree programmes for the task of imparting knowledge about cultural heritage to tourists in order to support its existence, but also to use cultural heritage to promote the sustainable development of tourism.
The sustainability of the project will be ensured through three project outcomes:
2. E book (European cultural heritage, i.e. gastronomic traditions, the methods of its interpretation and transfer
strategies for tourism markets).
3. Guide lines for tourism companies focusing on the design and implementa tion of tourist attractions (best practice
approaches, tourism needs analysis, market segmentation and event management).
13:40-14:10 Lisa Stansbie, Dean, The Leeds School of Arts, Leeds Beckett University, UK. Title: Strava and The Use of Data Visualisation: Self-Tracking as Creativity (PowerPoint)
The gamification of fitness activities has been on the rise over the last ten years. Social Fitness Networks such as Strava encourage users to interact, much like social networks, but this interaction manifests itself via a sharing of data from logged fitness activities. Developed in 2009 Strava now has approximately 40 million users in around 195 different countries, tracking their cycling and running activities (and to a much lesser extent swimming). Strava users data is logged by GPS information collected via smartphones or fitness watches and the display of this data enables an audience to comment on perceived effort, speed, gradient and routes. The display of the data is central to a relationship between Strava users (often in different parts of the world) who could be said to become data subjects (Lupton, Pink, Labond 2018). The nature of self-tracking activities (notably Strava) has also in recent years involved the notion of ‘creativity’ by utilising GPS mapping as a tool to create drawings with the physical body, and this in itself has also become a competitive element of the network as evidenced via the stand-alone websites such as StravaArt. This paper seeks to draw analogies between the competitive nature of creativity and fitness activities that Strava promotes and suggests that such fitness networks are radically changing the nature of leisure fitness behaviour. “…individuals invest more effort in activities when compared against others.”
Abdulaziz Alajlan, PhD Candidate, Cardiff University, UK. Easa Alqahtani, PhD Candidate, Cardiff University, UK. Title: The Media Coverage of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans(PowerPoint)
The ethical dilemma or ethical question explored by this paper is that whether or not it is ethical for the media outlets comprise on their impartially or show ambivalence or oblivion towards being politically correct. This paper would explore and analyze the case of media coverage for Hurricane Katrina, which represents a case where media was faced with the above-mentioned dilemma. This paper analyzed secondary data for a number of studies including: Sommers et al. study which explored Google News Search for 15 days and analyzed 3870 stories and Nunberg studied Nexis wire service for 7 days. To sum up, this paper summarized the research discussions that support and oppose the results of these analyzes.
Ala’a Alshaikh, Head, Strategic Communication and Public Relations, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Title: Twitter as a Safe Sphere: The Influence of Twitter Activities on Repairing Image of Governmental Organizations during Crisis in Saudi Arabia.(PowerPoint)
It has been well documented that, during all stages of crises and risk events, people engage in various forms of communication to reduce uncertainty and to gain a sense of personal control over the situation. One tool that is not utilized to its full potential as a crisis communication channel is Twitter. This may be due to its relatively recent diffusion compared to legacy media, and general uncertainty on the part of emergency managers concerning the best means of using the media. The current study has examined the moderation role of twitter during crisis and its effects on image’s repair of governmental organisations. To fulfil the study objectives, the theoretical framework adopted in this study was based on the following theories: situational crisis theory and image repair theory. Methodologically, this research is a quantitative research, data were collected through questionnaire. Core findings reinforce the relation between messages and online activities on twitter and attitudes toward crisis. The study also found that Image repair strategies can be done on Twitter, when it has been used appropriately after crisis situations. However, the attitude toward the crisis becomes negative if the strategies do not be supported by the actual implantation by the governmental oragnisations. Then, users interpret the intended message strategy negatively and ineffectively. Finally, Tweets on Twitter used diminish response strategy and rebuilding response strategy show a higher trust among users than other image repair strategies.
20:00-21:30 Dinner (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Wednesday 13 May 2020Educational Islands Cruise
(The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Thursday 14 May 2020Delphi Tour
(The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)