3rd Annual International Forum on EthicsProgram (Athens Local Time)(In the program presentations are included from all the subjects scheduled to be presented in parallel)(Note: each presentation includes at least 10 minutes for questions and discussions if available)
We are living in very exiting world, where five different generations communicate, co-operate, work and learn together. However, those generations grew up in different social framework, which had important influence on their values, specific behaviour and attitude towards work and learning. Based on different research we found out the strenghts and weaknessess of different generations and concluded that strenghts of mature generations (Veterans, Baby boom and X) are actually the weaknesses of junger generations (Y and Z) and opposite; the strenghts of junger generations are weaknessess of mature generations. Futher on we focus our intention on the learning in the workplace and design the survey about motivational drivers for learning in the workplace along different generations as well explore diffrent kind of learning forms in the workplace. We found out, there are some differences in learning motivation and using learning forms in the workplace along generations, however they are much smaller, than we expected. Generation Y assessed their self as most motivated generation for learning in the workplace. For mature generation (Baby boom and X), the most important drivers for learning are: solving specific problems in the workplace, personal grow, networking and socializing. For yunger generation (Z and Y) very important driver is also posibility for higher earnings. We aslo found out that self-study trough internet is most commonly used learning form along all generations, however we found more interesting data, which successfully cracking stereotypes about different generations.
Francisco Barros-Rodriguez, Assistant Professor, University of Jaén, Spain. Title: Aging in Place when Place Becomes Alien: The Experience of the Elderly Living Alone in Barcelona (Spain).(PowerPoint)
The rise in number and share of people who live alone (one-person households –OPHs hereafter-) is a global and cross-cultural phenomenon whose roots might be established in relation to the deep social change experienced in the realm of attitudes and values of Western societies over the second half of the 20th century. The fact is attracting growing attention from Sociology as residential atomization is often seen as a direct or indirect consequence of the process of social individualization. Whether the phenomenon has more to do with individual choice or with structural determinants is an issue currently under debate. Yet no doubt we are in front of a salient social process with a number of not minor implications in terms of sociability as well as of welfare-related policy planning and intervention. This work deals with the concept of “aging in place” and its meaning and significance for a specific segment of the elderly who are especially prone to embody a number of vulnerabilities derived from the characteristics of the residential context: those living alone in big cities. We focus on a case study grounded in the city of Barcelona that is being conducted through a mixed methodology (i.e. quantitative and qualitative). Starting with the analysis of the prevalence of OPHs by census districts and census sections in this Spanish city, we identified some enclaves of high concentration of solo-dwellers whose sociodemographic profile was also obtained through aggregate census data released in 2011. Basically, we found a dichotomized profile: enclaves that mostly harbour young-single-high-educated population and enclaves mostly containing elderly-widow-low-educated population. As the data went back to 2011, we proceed by undertaking a contextual observation in order to confirm the findings provided by such data, also bearing in mind that changes may happen be very quickly in large and dynamic cities like Barcelona. In this observation, we definitively characterized each enclave and we selected the ones that best fitted our purposes in view to the realization of face-to-face in-depth interviews. Also, several potential informative links (i.e. through neighbourhood associations, leisure centres, parishes, etc.) were established that finally permitted us the access to interviewees. The area (and people) that was eventually selected for this work is Section 1 (Drassanes) at District 1 (Ciutat Vella) which is placed centrally on the East of the city. The neighbourhood is actually enclosed to the famous promenade of Las Ramblas. Several in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among solo residents aged 65+ which served to collect and interpret their biographies since their settlement in the area. The information provided also served to find out how they are interacting and adapting their aging experiences in front of rapid (and sometimes perceived as hostile) changes in the city and the neighbourhood. Among others, real estate speculation, political neglect, the significance of social capital and their emotional baggage are intertwined in their stories, all of which serve us to revisit the concept of “aging in place” and give it additional complexity derived from individual experiences.
12:00-12:30 Claudiu Coman, Professor, Transilvania University of Brașov, Romania.
Maria Cristina Bularca, Master Student, Transilvania University of Brasov Romania. Title: Case Study: Master Degree in Communication.(PowerPoint)
Living in the age of technology, universities are in need of keeping up with the development of the means of communication and the way new generations of students use this means. Choosing a master program can sometimes be a real challenge for a student with a Bachelor’s degree in communication. In most cases, students are usually pressed for time and the most effective way to obtain information is through the medium of online platforms used by universities. However, sometimes as a consequence of poorly implemented strategies, students often encounter issues when it comes to finding information about the activity of the university, academic offer or real time communication with the representatives. In this regard, we considered necessary and relevant to conduct a research on the best European universities that offer master programs in communication, not only because it can offer a perspective about the online methods and strategies used in order to keep students and prospective students informed, but it can also provide some guidelines that can be used as frame of reference when it comes to online promotion of universities. Moreover, the use of online promotion strategies benefits the university: they help to correctly direct the message to the target audience and thus maintain a favorable relationship with it. Focusing on the aspects mentioned above, the conducted research consists of two parts. Firstly, we analyzed the way the first 20 european universities that offer master programs in communication, according to a top made by The times higher education, promote themselves online. Secondly, in order to be able to make a comparison and break down rules of good practice we also analyzed the online promotion of 5 universities that occupy lower positions in the top. The universities were analyzed based on an adapted content grid figure with 29 criteria, that has been previously used to analyze the activity on Facebook of 10 museums. Following the analysis of 25 of the best European universities offering masters programs in communication, we found that they use various integrated online promotion strategies that involve both their own website and various social networks. Contrary to the initial expectations, not all the prestigious universities analyzed fully comply with the essential criteria for a proper online promotion, but they use combinations of tools that match their profile. Moreover, they opt on social networks for a promotion of the events that are organized by them, while on their own site, they emphasize the promotion of research activity, and the provision of information related to the faculties. The results obtained were condensed into an online promotion model developed for Transilvania University of Brasov, created in the form of recommendations. Therefore, the conducted research showed that while there are similarities between the strategies used by the best European universities and the Europe’s less well-seen universities, the best universities use integrated online promotion strategies which have proven to be effective, and their methods can be adapted and used by other universities in order to improve their procedure of online promotion.
12:30-13:00 Peter Kovacs, Associate Professor, University of Szeged, Hungary. Adrienn Princz, Assistant Professor, University of Szeged, Hungary. Vivien Kardos, Student, University of Szeged, Hungary. Title: Jurists’ Legal IT Competencies and Habits in Hungary.(PowerPoint)
Nowadays, it can be established that the various trends surrounding digitalization have an increasing impact on the legal sector, this tendency has led to a significant transformation in the „world of law”. The question arises as to how the practicing legal community is prepared for these changes and the growing role of information technology. Moreover, how the legal practitioners visualize the future of lawyers and what legal challenges they face in their daily lives. Based on the results of our empirical research, in addition to trying to answer these questions, we also highlight what kind of IT knowledge the respondents have. Furthermore, how technology support, for instance, software, smart contracts, is being used in their work and conclusion, what kind of level their digital competence is. To make our research as broad as possible, we conducted a questionnaire, which was completed by more than 300 legal practitioners from Hungary. Respondents came from various fields of law, they are notaries, attorneys-at-law from smaller and larger law firms, in-house counsels, judges, prosecutors and lawyers working in public administration, both at state and municipal levels. Our study also provides insight into the legal IT competencies of legal practitioners that they currently possess. Moreover, we examine how they relate to the challenges of digitalization, and how they imagine the future of lawyers and what they expect from the youngest generation of lawyers, who have just finished their legal studies at the universities. The main consequence is that Hungarian jurists use general IT solutions daily such as word, email, web browser. In the case of legal IT solutions they use legal databases on a daily level but the use of other legal IT solutions such as smart contracts, chatbots, AI is not too typical. Most of them can specify digital trends in the legal business. They think, professional and language knowledge, soft skills, and IT knowledge are the requested outcomes of university legal training programs.
13:00-13:30 Eva Kuruczleki, Assistant Lecturer, University of Szeged, Hungary. Lilla Liptak, Assistant Lecturer, University of Szeged, Hungary. Tamas Racz, PhD Student, University of Szeged, Hungary. Title: Financial Literacy of Gen Z in the Digital Age.(PowerPoint)
The Global Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008 highlighted the lack of financial knowledge of the population and the consequent risk associated with finances. Financially conscious households are more likely to avoid adverse financial decisions thereby contributing to the healthy functioning of the entire financial system. Therefore, the development of the financial culture is the interest of all actors of the economy. Our research provides a more comprehensive picture of the financial literacy of Hungarian students, with a focus on the digital financial knowledge of young people. This age group grew up in the 21st century, in which this generation is and was surrounded by countless digital and smart devices. The biggest advantage of this is, unlike previous generations, that they are able to obtain and process information very quickly. However, the downside is that they may not be able to comprehend this extremely large amount of information effectively. Our research was based on questionnaires filled out by more than 10,000 students from around the country. During the survey, we intended to investigate what kind of knowledge these students have about today’s defining concepts, such as online banking, mobile wallet, contactless payment or Bitcoin. We found that the additional available information does not necessarily cause that young people have more knowledge of the world around them, and the financial knowledge of Hungarian students, especially those from the secondary schools is at an extremely low level.
13:30-14:00 Georgios Zouridakis, Lecturer, University of Essex, UK. Title: The (New) Greek Law on PLCs: (still) in Need for a Derivative Action? (PowerPoint)
Derivative actions have been gaining “legislative” ground internationally in the past three decades, largely due to their perceived role in investor protection and corporate governance. Within Europe, very few exceptions of jurisdictions not following this “trend” remain, one of them being Greece and its law on public limited companies. Despite the latter being recently reformed, by virtue of Law 4548/2018 (which mostly came to effect in 1.1.2019), it still only provides for a functionally equivalent remedy, the so-called “ company’s action”; a legal transplant from a jurisdiction which fifteen years ago modernised its law by introducing its own version of the derivative action. Historically, the company’s action has been the subject of much criticism by academics and practitioners which, as this research argues, the latest Greek reform did little to address. The law is still exclusionary of small minorities, still leaves much room for wrongdoers to escape liability, still dissuades shareholders from championing corporate interests and inadequately filters frivolous and vexatious litigation. By examining the European Model Corporation Act and drawing comparative insight (predominantly) from Germany and the UK, this research proceeds with recommending that the introduction of a statutory form of the derivative action can address these concerns, providing also guidelines as to how this should be constructed and operate.
14:30-15:00 Oona Voican, PhD Student, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Title: Using Data Mining Methods to Solve Classification Problems. The Connection between the Profitability of a Financial Assets and the Profitability of the Market Portofolio. (PowerPoint)
Data Mining refers to the analysis of large amounts of data stored in computers. The Big Data era is already present, with current sources indicating that more data have been created over the last two years than they have been generated throughout the entire human history. Big Data involves data sets so large that traditional data analysis methods are no longer usable due to the huge amount of data. Lacking or ignoring the data structure is an extremely important aspect, even more important that size, in data analysis, transformation, innovation and value for business. Data Mining is very effective in many business areas. The key is to find ways or information that can be used in a concrete way to improve business profitability. The Sharpe ratio highlights, by means of a unifactorial model of linear regression, the connection between the profitability of a financial asset and the profitability of the market portfolio, representing an essential step towards the evaluation of primary financial instruments. In other words, all assets depend on the market’s evolution, but the way they respond to market changes is different. The objective of this paper was to perform two analyzes based on the Sharpe model to determine how two assets: Microsoft’s actions and Apple’s actions react to market changes. Before estimating a regression model based on the data series, an important step is to check the series’ stationarity. To verify the stationarity of the data series we analyzed the autocorrelation coefficients that are statistically insignificant starting with lag 1 which demonstrates that the analyzed series are stationary. To make sure the series are stationary we also use the ADF test, which shows that the three series are stationary. Two regression models were further estimated: in the first model, it was analyzed Microsoft’s asset response to market changes, while in the second model it was analyzed Apple’s asset response to market changes. The tests performed show that the two variables are positively correlated to a market profitability trend, the increase by one unit (by 1%) of market profitability, the profitability of a stock in Microsoft increases by 0.283 units (by 0.283%), and the increase by one unit (by 1%) of market profitability, the profitability of a stock in Apple increases by 0.527 units (by 0.527%). Examining the regression model, we note that we have a coefficient of determination (multiple R-squared = 0.3517 and multiple R-squared = 0.2154), showing that approximately 35.17% of the change in the profitability of Microsoft asset and about 21.54% of the change in the profitability of the Apple asset is explained by the profitability of the market, the rest of the variation being explained by other factors that are not included in the model.
15:00-15:30 Michele Santurro, PhD Student, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Title: Machine Learning and Artificial Neural Networks.(PowerPoint)
Working with big data involves several methodological issues which are related to the different stages of the social research process and upset long-established routines in sociology. Although big data probably do not represent a paradigm shift, together with other new data such as big corpora and open data, they are profoundly changing our data culture, redefining the relationship that connects the construction of data with their use aimed to produce social knowledge. In particular, from the point of view of analysis, big data push researchers to integrate textual data, numerical data and images, and require text-mining and information retrieval techniques, multi-level and multi-method strategies. Artificial neural networks stand out as a particularly suitable processing system in relation to these challenges. In fact, the answers that artificial neural networks provide to different variables can be of different types, from those at the level of cardinal variables to those at the level of ordinal and nominal ones, to dummy variables up to fuzzy ones: different types of variables can be considered within the same matrices. In addition, the use of artificial neural networks gives us the opportunity to overcome, at least in part, some limitations of the analyses carried out with traditional techniques. First, the use of artificial neural networks does not require any hypothesis on the character of the distribution of the variables and the correlations between them, allowing to face many problems of which the analytical solutions are not known. Secondly, the typical applications of neuronal networks tolerate a certain latitude in the results and are suitable to be performed, unlike traditional processing, even with noisy, incomplete or affected by detection errors data. Finally, the relationships between variables and subjects can be studied according to random and probabilistic models, overcoming the constraint of linearity imposed by classical statistical approaches. In that sense, therefore, the connectionist approach of artificial neural networks applied to social sciences is promising and deserves to be tested. Our paper has the following two objectives: to offer an adequate introduction into this vast toolbox; and apply artificial neural networks to sociological data to evaluate their advantages and weaknesses for social research.
15:30-16:00 Paul Mocombe, Assistant Professor, West Virginia State University, USA. Title: Psychion, Qualia, Consciousness, and the Constitution of Mind In Paul C. Mocombe’s Theory of Phenomenological Structuralism(PowerPoint)-(Paper)-(Video)
This work highlights the physics, metaphysics, and sociology of Paul C. Mocombe’s structurationist theory of phenomenological structuralism. The author, synthesizing and building on Univon multiverse hypothesis, the quantum computation of ORCH-OR theory, structurationism, and the multiverse ideas of Haitian ontology/epistemology and quantum mechanics abductively posits that consciousness is a fifth force of nature, a quantum material substance/energy, psychion, the phenomenal properties, qualia, of which are recycled/entangled/superimposed throughout the multiverse and becomes embodied via the microtubules of brains and multiple worlds. It (consciousness) is manifested in simultaneous, entangled, superimposed, and interconnecting material resource frameworks, multiple worlds, as praxis or practical consciousness of organic life, which in-turn becomes the phenomenal properties of material (subatomic particle energy, psychion) consciousness that is recycled/entangled/superimposed throughout the multiverses to constitute minds with practical activity or consciousness.
16:00-16:30 Aleksandra Tryniecka, Adjunct Lecturer, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Poland. Title: Paradise Lost: Milton’s Portrayal of Satan and the Ethics of Moral and Readerly Choices.(PowerPoint)
According to John Deigh, “ethics is the philosophical study of morality. It is a study of what are good and bad ends to pursue in life that involve matters of morality” (7, An Introduction to Ethics). Ethics aims to, as Deigh observes, “establish conclusions about what a person ought to do” (7). The readers of John Milton’s Paradise Lost often feel torn in their ethical judgment when acquainted with the literary character of Satan. Milton’s Satan, in contrast to such a character as supposedly central yet unfortunately insipid Adam, possesses what Percy Shelley describes as “magnificence” (Defense of Poetry, 1821). Numerous readers find themselves drawn to Milton’s Satan, at the same time experiencing an ethical conflict between their readerly and moral choices. From a moral point of view, satan represents evil, yet, apparently, from a readerly perspective, Milton’s satan as a literary character apparently fails to appear as a personification of ruthless evil as such. Instead, Milton’s Satan takes on the role of a moral being who is inwardly conflicted and surprisingly torn between traditional notions of goodness and evil in a humanlike, imperfect way. Milton’s Satan, a vivid, multisided and endlessly tragic hero who faithfully persists in his purpose, aspires to nobility yet remains consumed by a self-annihilating pride and hatred, appears to be one of the most enigmatic and striking literary characters ever created. In my presentation I study the readers’ ethical perspectives on Satan regarded both as Milton’s character and an entity universally signifying evil. Moreover, I draw on the notion of conflicted readerly choices, which highlight the struggle between the recognition of Milton’s Satan as a moral being (readerly choices) and remaining faithful to one’s system of beliefs (moral choices). In my analysis I adhere to a classroom study which strongly points to this ethical conflict between sympathizing with Milton’s Satan as an empathic reaction and rejecting evil as a moral commitment.
16:30-17:00 Dimitrios Paparas, Senior Lecturer, Harper Adams University, UK. Title: Mentoring Culture in Small Specialist Universities.(PowerPoint)
Mentoring and coaching offer meaningful and significant ways in which academic staff can encourage and support each other in their professional development and ultimately go on to enhance the student experience. Mentoring can take on formal or informal relationships. Traditionally, at Harper Adams University, mentoring has been considered more of an informal relationship between senior individuals (mentor) who are paired with younger individuals (protégé). Formal mentoring is often initiated by an organization to assist with one or more of the following functions: new employee socialization/enculturation, complement established formal learning processes, improve performance, and/or realize potential (Gibb, 1999). The purpose of this study is to explore the research related to staff mentoring programs in Higher Education. The following are the research questions: 1. How does informal mentoring happen? 2. What are the benefits of mentoring programs? 3. How has the mentoring program helped participants to articulate their growth needs in Teaching, Research-Scholarship, and Service? 4. What are the barriers to developing mentoring programs in Higher Education? How can they be overcome? 5. How can mentoring in small specialist Institution be optimised? In order to ensure the validity and reliability of our results we will deploy a number of different data collection methods, the mixed methods research. Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analysing and integrating quantitative (e.g., experiments, surveys) and qualitative (e.g., focus groups, interviews) research. We will also deploy the Net-Map which is an interview-based mapping tool that helps people understand, visualize, discuss, and improve situations in which many different actors influence outcomes. By creating Influence Network Maps, individuals and groups can clarify their own view of a situation, foster discussion, and develop a strategic approach to their networking activities. More specifically, Net-Map helps players to determine what actors are involved in a given network, how they are linked, how influential they are, and what their goals are.
17:00-17:30 Clément Labi, PhD Student, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg. Title: On the Facelessness of Evil : How Board Mechanics Explain Unethical Decisions.(PowerPoint)
Why do we assign ethical intentions or mechanisms to certain businesses, which by design do not possess intentionality in the same way as actual business people do? Are said businesses entitled to ascribe to themselves codes of ethics? Are these only opportunistic shortcuts from the judges or the boards? On the contrary, the article will attempt to describe how the unethical aspect of some decisions could not be satisfactorily explained in terms of the intentions of individuals, but rather as being the products of collective choice at the level of the governing body of groups (for instance, but not only the board of directors of a corporation), notably because the sense of individual responsibility is diluted and scruples assuaged. Therefore, not only can businesses in themselves can be assessed in terms of ethics, but the reality of a literally faceless business is congruent to institutionalised wrongdoing.
17:30-18:00 Fernando Aguiar, Tenured Scientist, IFS-CSIC, Spain. Title: Fighting Disgust: How do Doctors and Nurses Manage Repugnance towards Illness and the Sick?(PowerPoint)
The things that produce most disgust include body substances (feces, urine, semen, saliva, mucus) and human body excrescences (warts, abscesses). However, disgust towards people is not limited to their body but it is usually extended to, or it symbolically contaminates, the whole person. Many people are not only disgusted by morbid obesity, but by fat people in general (Park et al 2007). We are not only disgusted by illness, but by an ill person as a whole, who sullies everything s/he touches (Oaten et al 2009). Disgust is thus an emotion with a great capacity to stigmatize, which implies rejection and more severe moral judgements (moral disgust) against those who are different, impure, undesirable, or ill (Nussbaum 2006; Haidt 2012). Our talk will focus on disgust toward illness and, therefore, toward the sick themselves among doctors and nurses. Although disgust and illness seem to be especially linked (disgust is a disease-avoidance emotion), hardly any empirical work focuses on how doctors and nurses manage both their possible disgust at the disease and the patient and what measures they take to manage that disgust. Quite the contrary, it is something usually hidden, which is not talked about. But it exists: “Protecting the Self from the unclean and polluted Other is a reaction that every nurse experiences, from the surgical ward to the care of homeless persons. But the social (as well as the professional) constructions of nurses, in a way, forbid the verbalization of emotions such as disgust and repulsion”. (Holmes, D., Perron, A., O´Byrne, A. (2006), Understanding disgust in nursing: Abjection, self, and the other, Research and Theory in Nursing Practice, 20, 4, p. 310). Thus, the questions we are going to ask are the following: To what extent do doctors and nurses feel disgusted by patients (in the case of diseases with disgusting abscesses)? Do they try to hide that disgust? What strategies do they follow? How does it affect them when they deal with the sick? Do they treat inappropriately them, lacking empathy, for example? To answer them we will present the data of an online survey to 800 Spanish doctors and nurses. Our work is framed in what can be considered as both empirical ethics and medical ethics.
20:30-22:30 Greek Night (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Tuesday 5 May 2020
08:00-11:00 Urban Walk (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Najla J. Alhraiwil, Head of Impact Measurement Unit, Deputyship of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Title: Promoting Safe Sunlight Exposure among School Students in Saudi Arabia: A National Comparative Study.(PowerPoint)
Background: Skin exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation is the major source of vitamin D in our bodies and only a small proportion is derived from dietary intake. This is of particular interest to students with accelerated childhood and adolescence growth phases for whom safe sunlight exposure (SSE) knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) may be limited. Many international studies have been conducted to assess KAP of the public toward SSE, including school-based studies; however, there are scarce data on these factors among students from the Middle East. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) educational campaign about SSE on the KAP of Saudi students. Methods: A national comparative study was conducted on two stratified random samples of governmental school students in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Students were divided into two groups, the first of which attended the educational campaign while the other was a control group. Data were collected four weeks after the campaign (between April and May 2018) using a specially designed self-administered questionnaire. For knowledge pertaining to SSE, correct answers were coded as one while wrong answers and don’t knows were coded as zero. The total knowledge score ranged from 0 to 4. SSE attitude and practice were assessed using a Likert scale. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 3125 students in the two groups. A total of 3032 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis (1611 in the interventional group and 1421 in the control group), giving a response rate of 97%. A significantly higher level of knowledge about SSE was recorded among students who had attended the educational program compared to the control group (Median score 3, IQR 2:4 vs 3, 2:3 respectively; p value < 0.001). Attitudes towards SSE were significantly better among students who had attended the educational program with 49.8% thinking that they receive sufficiently healthy sun exposure time compared to 44.1% for the control group (p value = 0.001). 96.0% vs 93.5% respectively thought that sun exposure is essential for their health (p value = 0.008), and 60.6% vs 51.6% had the intention to increase their sun exposure in the future (p value < 0.001). However, no significant difference in practice was detected between the two groups. Conclusion: Educational campaigns among school-aged children could be effective in improving students’ knowledge and attitudes about safe sunlight exposure.
11:30-12:00 Ciro Clemente De Falco, Research Fellow, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Title: A Mixed Content Analysis Design in the Study of the Italian Perception of the Covid-19 on Twitter.(PowerPoint)
The digital era and the boom of social, user-generated and freely available and usable content on the Net has brought to the fore a classic technique, accused too often of being highly subjective and requiring a large amount of intellectual work. This is Content Analysis which has seen an unprecedented explosion in recent years. In addition to the incessant flow, speed of diffusion and high volume of today’s big data, the attention of social researchers – as well as of anyone interested in drawing information from this enormous proliferation of data – is shifting to new possibilities. Among these we find that of having a notion of the contents conveyed, of the feelings expressed, of the polarities of big data, but also the chance to extract other information that indirectly speaks of the tastes, opinions, beliefs and transformations behind the behavior of the users of the Net. In fact, secondary data available on the Net, collectable through sophisticated query systems with API or with web scraping software, make it possible to accumulate huge amounts of this dense social data, from which it is possible to try to extract not only trends but real knowledge, in a quantitative as well as in a qualitative manner. This enriches the value of the results that can be produced with Content Analysis and limits, until disappearing, all the critical horizons that have classically left this technique in the shadows, allowing it to find new applicative dignity, validity and reliability (Hamad et al., 2016). In order to explain this evidence, the contribution that we will present attempts to prove that the return of Content Analysis techniques is not only due to the change in the scenario and in the data analyzed, but also to the ability of this technique to innovate and evolve, leading to open analytical perspectives beyond contingent changes. This can be demonstrated through the application of digital mixed content analysis to the recent Covid-19 outbreak and its development of the perception of the Italian population on a specific digital social platform, Twitter.
12:00-12:30 Giuseppe Luca De Luca Picione, Assistant Professor, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Lucia Fortini, Adjunct Professor, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Domenico Trezza, Research Assistant, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Title: A Mixed Research Model to Study Local Welfare Systems. The Case of Territorial Areas in Campania Region. (PowerPoint)
In recent years, there was an increasing use of mixed methods designs in applied research, especially in welfare policies research (Brookes et al. 2018, Mason et al. 2019, Mertens 2018, Niedzwiecki and Nunnally 2017, Punziano 2016). These findings have often supported the utility of a systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is not our intention to enter the debate about different mixed method approaches (Amaturo and Punziano 2016, Bazeley 2008, Tashakkori et al. 2015) but it is certainly a purpose to show the interesting implications coming from policy research combining different methods, techniques and tools. This contribute presents the principal method steps of a study about the municipalities association in Campania (i.e. Territorial Areas, thereafter TA) in the context of implementation and management welfare policy. The starting point is that TA with strong normative structure would positively affect the performance of local services. In order to decline the starting hypothesis, we have identified four semantic areas: the structure of the TA, the ways of consultation, the social services and the performances. We have adopted a perspective integrating two different methods: one more formalized that responds to context data building; the other less formal to investigate informal relational networks and the meanings of the actors involved in decision-making processes. An emerging mixed analytical model declines the performance of the areas such as the outcome both of a pragmatist process (for example, performance indicators), and of a constructivist background (i.e. satisfaction, perceived success, etc.). Under these premises, this work tries to develop an instrument that allows to understanding not only the TA context but also, more generally, to construct an interpretative model of development trajectories and integration processes relating to emerging welfare systems.
12:30-13:00 Giuseppe Masullo, Professor, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy.
Marianna Coppola, PhD Student, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy. Title: Psychological, Social and Imaginary Dimensions of LGB People who use Dating Apps: A Netnography Approach. (PowerPoint)
The increasing use of social networks and dating apps’ usage represent – especially in the actual decade- a new and alternative way to meet people, compared to the traditional face to face communication. Virtual platforms constitute an opportunity properly aimed to respond to people’s needs, in order to create emotional bonds, romantic links or sexual purposes. The existing social networks are quite diversified, according to people who is using each of them; in fact gay men are using Grindr, while Lesbians are using Wapa. Those apps are a represent an alternate way to meet new people, especially for themselves and because of the social stigma related to the emotional and erotic orientation of each, that has not so many chances to meet or that has simply a problem to make clear his sexual orientation. The investigation has the goal to respond to the partial default of the Italian research between virtual media and homosexuality, to underline the methods of communication and the relational approaches – through which, gay and lesbian people (and partially also bisexuals) relate each other through the interactive tools of social networks. The first section -where part of the scientific literature has been described and well connected to the relation among new media, affectivity and sexuality – will explain the sexual identity notion and will talk about its dimension, an essential epistemological preamble that ensures the comprehension of the possible phenomenology, through which people relate to their own sexuality. Instead, the second one will explore the social mechanism of the apps’, showing gay’s and lesbians’ trends related to the emotional, sentimental or sexual approach, to report the results of the research, that had seen the involvement of a group of people’s from Campania, in southern Italy. The purpose aims to verify the existence of a different gay or lesbian approach in both applications (in the purpose of its usage and in some of the imaginary dimensions) or if differently those apps proceed to modify the sexual behaviour, producing in this way, new forms of social and relational homologation. The research will analyse the aspects considered above – through the mixed methods approach, which sees – as the first step – the study of user’s profiles, in both dating apps. A second phase will – on the other hand – regard the qualitative interviews (both performed individually or collectively), which have the goal to rebuilt the psychological (with emotional and affective dynamics) and social (sexual script) dimension of the imaginary, on which on line interactions are based
13:00-13:30 Valentina D’Auria, PhD Student, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy. Title: Defining and Measuring Digital Capital. Results from an Italian Study.(PowerPoint)
This paper discusses the methodological challenges in developing, measuring and validating a complex and multifaceted concept, like Digital Capital. Digital Capital is a relatively new concept in academic literature: it emerged within the digital divide research strand , with the aim to analyze the ‘set of dispositions’ developed by people when they get in touch with new technologies, especially the digital and the ICT ones (Park 2017; Ragnedda 2018). Although there have been several theoretical definitions of Digital Capital (Hamelink 2000; Seale et al. 2006; Morgan 2010; Prieur and Savage 2013), very few attempts were made to operationalize and measure it so far. One of the first effort to provide a measure of Digital Capital was made by Ragnedda and Ruiu (2019), relying on the following definition : “’a set of internalised abilities and aptitudes’ (digital competencies) as well as ‘externalised resources’ (digital technology) that can be historically accumulated and transferred from one arena to another” (Ragnedda 2018). Ragnedda, Ruiu and Addeo (2019) have recently operationalized this definition through a research carried out on a representative sample of UK citizens. The results proved the construct validity of the operational definition, thus showing that Digital Capital could be empirically measured. However, a measurement model needs to be tested and validated over time and in different sociocultural context in order to be refined and strengthened. This is the reason why this paper will show the results of a research carried out to test the validity of the Digital Capital measure in a different country, i.e. Italy. Our research design strictly followed the operational definition and the methodological path provided in the original paper (Ragnedda, Ruiu and Addeo 2019). Thus, the data were collected with an online survey carried out on a sample of Italian people and analyzed with bivariate and multivariate statistics. By testing the validity of the Digital Capital measurement model, results will discuss the challenges and the pitfalls in operationalizing complex concept in social research.
13:30-14:00 Giuseppe Michele Padricelli, PhD Student, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Title: Virtual Methods and Digital Methods: Examples of Netnography and Digital Ethnography for a Comparison between Methods for Analyzing the Digital Scenario in Tourism Studies. (PowerPoint)
Starting from the observation «Web-mediated research […] is already transforming the way in which researchers practice traditional research methods transposed on the Web» (Amaturo, E., and Punziano, G., 2016:35-36), with this contribution we intend to retrace the main differences that substantiate the strands of virtual methods and digital methods. We recover the vison of Hine (2000), about the virtual methods. He affirms that the classic techniques of social research can be transposed on the web and theorizes that the web can be interpreted as an object of study. This is how the survey becomes web survey or the interview becomes web-interview or, again, the participant observation becomes netnographic practice. To this vision, that keeps the object of study separate from the methodological practice, we intend to contrast a vision, linked to digital methods, in which the object of study and the methodological practice come to merge into an integrated whole, so as to coin the motto follow the medium as a cognitive and methodological imperative together. This is Roger’s vision (2009), for which classical techniques cannot be of help in their only transposition, but it is necessary to hybridize the techniques with the means (the Net) to find the methodological key that allows to produce a deeper, dynamic and truly fitted knowledge on the digital environment. And here, the classic techniques, with which there were directly produce data (survey, interview, observation), leave room for techniques that make use of the data already existing on the net, the natural metrics inherent in digital platforms and the information that indirectly cover the spectrum knowledge that moves the interest of the social researcher in the digital age. To formalize these differences of approach and highlight limits and advantages in the use of the two perspectives, examples of research related to the study of tourism (Mkono, Markwell, 2014) will be examined. In particular, the attention will be focused on a netnographic study (following the approach of Kozinets, 2010 for whom netnography suggest immediately an approach adapted from the authentic and traditional ethnography technics to the virtual communities studies in the idea of a «Social aggregation that emerge from the Net when enough people carry on […] public discussion long enough, with sufficient human feeling to forms webs of personal relationships in cyberspace», p. 8) and one calibrated on the digital ethnography approach (following, this time, the approach of Murthy, 2008, for whom digital ethnography suggest a fully digital approach, sometimes covered, but at all linked to the use of already existing information treated with the help of other specific techniques, such as, content or network analysis). Then, the methodological reflection will space for a broader reflection linked to ontological and epistemological questions upstream of the separation of the two presented approaches.
20:00-21:30 Dinner (The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Wednesday 6 May 2020Educational Islands Cruise
(The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)
Thursday 7 May 2020Delphi Tour
(The event did not take place due to the limited number of attendance. Those who paid and were not able to attend will be offered a free voucher according to our policy: https://www.atiner.gr/coronavirus)