2nd Annual International Conference on Classical and Byzantine Studies, 3-6 June 2019, Athens, Greece
|1||Hate Speech in Greek Literature of the Ancient and Byzantine Period|
organized by the Athens Center for Classical & Byzantine Studies (ACCBS) of ATINER
Stream Leader: Dr. Krystyna Tuszynska, Academic Member, ATINER & Professor, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland.
The project in its range of research covers various literary genres cultivated in Ancient times, like deliberative rhetoric, forensic rhetoric, Old Comedy, Platonic dialogue, political historiography and the literary genres of the Byzantine times, such as hagiography, satire, theological historiography, occasional logoi declaimed on the occasion of important religious or court events, and any literary genre which includes so-called ‘hate speech’ and which enables us to analyze it in the context of intellectual activity of the authors by their ‘thinking through language.’ The aim of the project is to examine the functions of rhetorical means that generate negative emotions (hatred, anger, disgust, resentment, revulsion, fear, fright) in the individual or collective recipient.
A look at the phenomenon of ‘hate speech’ in a diachronic perspective gives one an opportunity to present the so-called deinoza, ‘vehemence’, as an integral part of Greek culture, developed as a consequence of parrhesia in democratic Athens and continued in different political formations: pagan autocracy or the Christian feudal system. ‘Hate speech’ influences decision-making processes, shaping the opinions and tastes of the recipient, both individual and collective. The project aims to illustrate the creative function of ‘hate speech’ and, also, to show that ‘hate speech’ is an integral part of Greek culture, which seems to be significant due to its destroying the image of Apollonian order and rationality, so closely associated, in popular opinion, with Hellenic culture.
The phenomenon of deinoza can be observed in its full extent in the deliberative genre of Ancient Greek rhetoric, but it relates to debate in any genre/form which has the features of pro and contra, which is filled with dilemmas and ethical antitheses such as good-evil, safety-danger, security-harmfulness etc. Rhetorical ‘deliberation’ is used in various literary genres, both in prose and verse, in the so called didactic-moralistic literature. The Byzantine period is a time of confirmation of the use of rhetorical devices, applied, however, in a different context, which entails the process of adaptation and transformation of traditional (Ancient) means of ‘hate speech’ to new circumstances and needs.
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