16th Annual International Conference on Mediterranean Studies Program (Athens Local Time)
3-6 April 2023
9 Chalkokondili Street, 10677 Athens, Greece
(Note 1: the program is organized along time slots and not according to common theme) (Note 2: at the end of each session questions and discussions will follow)
(Note 3: Please note that many attendees including those who present a paper may choose the online option. However, ATINER will provide full-fledged services (lunches, dinners, excursions, etc.) for all those who present onsite.)
Monday 3 April 2023
09:30-10:00 Opening and Welcoming Remarks:
Gregory T. Papanikos, President, ATINER.
10:00-11:30 Session 1
Coordinator: Gregory T. Papanikos, President, ATINER.
Steven Oberhelman, Professor of Classics, Holder of the George Sumey Jr Endowed Professorship of Liberal Arts, and Interim Dean, Texas A&M University, USA. Title: A Nineteenth Century Medical Recipes Book from Northwest Greece.
In the Manuscripts Collection of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Archive Collections is a nineteenth century manuscript bound in leather, consisting solely of medicinal plants and their use in pharmacology. The book was originally part of the library in the Agios Nikolaos Monastery, which is located in Skamneli, Zagori The manuscript consists of 100 folia , with lists of plants, with their proper ties, medical uses, and their doses, applications, and administrations. There are also indices of 117 diseases , each with a de finition, general symptoms, and prognosis. I will examine the authorship and potential importance of this medical recipes book. The author is very likely Dimitrios Frangoulis, who was trained by t he famous botanist and folk healer Adam Gorgidas . Gorgidas es tablished a school for train i ng practical doctors in Ioannina in 1833 Frangoul is was a grad uate of this school an d became the healer of the mountain village of Skamneli until his death in 1896. Frangoulis wrote this medical recipe book to preserve his knowledge of local medicinal plants and his own healing praxis. I will show how this book is typic al of other northern Greek notebooks of the same time . I conclude with a discussion of plant medicine in the Zagori region, which is still being practiced today.
Maribel Fierro, Professor, Institute of Languages and Cultures of the Mediterranean CSIC, Spain. Title: The Sea in the Life Narratives of Scholars and Saints in the Islamic West (8th-15th Centuries).
The Mediterranean sea, according to Arabic sources, was formed when the Atlantic Ocean broke the natural barrier connecting the Iberian Peninsula with the Maghreb (North Africa) and the area was covered with water. Al‐Andalus (Muslim Iberia) was thus isolated from North Africa. If the Maghreb was a periphery of the Islamic world, al‐Andalus was even more as an island (jazirat al‐Andalus) surrounded by the sea on three sides and by a ‘sea of Christians’ on the remaining one. The feeling of precariousness that arose from this geographical position gave rise to traditions of eschatological contents predicting that the Christians would eventually take control of the whole of al‐Andalus. Muslims would then be obliged to flee, by sea those with the necessary means, while the poor will cross the Straits walking on water or God will open for them a path as He did with Moses. In my contribution I will analyze some texts dealing with scholars and saints who lived in the Islamic West (al‐Andalus and North Africa) during the 8th‐15th centuries, texts in which the sea plays a prominent role as a dangerous area but also as the place of miracles and mirabilia.
Vernon Provencal, Professor, Acadia University, Canada. Title: Dionysian Aspects of Mediterranean Wine Culture in Hellenic Greece.
The material aspect of ancient Mediterranean wine culture received its most significant development during the New Kingdom (1570-1070) of Egypt. 18th dynasty Theban tombs depict the entire process of wine making (Renfrew 61) and have preserved amphorae with inscriptions designating the vintage year, vintner, and quality of the wine (Lukacs 12). Sources also “attest to the popularity of wine making, its consumption by priests and the social elite, and its offering to the dead” (Varriano 13). Yet ”this sophisticated level of wine appreciation” was restricted to a social elite who regarded wine chiefly as “something deemed necessary for a good afterlife”, and wine itself as “what one drinks after death” (Lukacs 12). The social aspect of Mediterranean wine culture has its most significant development in the polis culture of ancient Greece, where wine became embedded in all facets of Greek life and was instituted in the rituals of the symposion as a social institution patronized by Dionysos as the god of wine. This paper shall explore the extent to which the distinctively Greek aspects of Mediterranean wine culture might be thought of as distinctively ‘Dionysian’ by way of reflecting on the relationship of the societal aspects of Greek wine culture to the societal aspects of the cult of Dionysus as the god of wine. For instance, just as the Greeks are indebted to the Egyptians for the use of amphorae as wine vessels yet differed in their usage by fermenting wine in stationary pithoi before transferring them to amphorae for shipping and storage, so are they indebted to the Egyptian use of wine in medicine yet differed in their usage by founding Greek medicine on a theoretical axis of hot/cold, wet/dry, as set out in the Hippocratic treatise, Air, Water, Places. The use of wine in Greek medicine to maintain a healthy balance of these elements inspired one Hippocratic author to reflect that it is for this reason that “Dionysus is everywhere called ‘Doctor’”(Jouanna 193). To what extent might the distinctively Greek art of medicine founded upon Hippocratic theory be thought of as ‘Dionysian’? Is it simply that Dionysus is the god of wine? This paper will explore the extent to which the distinctively Greek aspects of Mediterranean wine culture may be expressive of the worship of Dionysus as a god whose divinity is essentially societal, uniting such polarities as mortal and immortal, male and female, citizen and xenos, Greek and barbarian, whose worship serves to maintain a healthy balance among the elements that constitute Greek society, just as wine serves to maintain a healthy balance among the elements that make up the body in Greek medicine.
Rafaella Pilo, Researcher, University of Cagliari, Italy. Title: 1668: An Annus Horribilis for the Spanish Monarchy. The Lost European Hegemony, the International Situation, the Internal Crisis.
1668 seems to be a kind of annus horribilis for the Spanish Monarchy, that one who was able to lead European politics during an entire century. If it possible to consider the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559 – that ended with French-Spanish conflict in Italy – such as the apical moment for Habsburg, in some way the peace of Pyrenees, signed in 1659 between the very same protagonists, can represent the final phase of so significant hegemony above Europe ruled by Madrid (Ribot García, Storrs). Indeed 1668 represent the most crucial point for a lot of reasons connected such as with international order, but also with the rise of French and with the complicated situation of internal Spanish crisis. Louis XIV declared the war of devolution against Madrid in 1667, Portugal obtained the independence from Spain in 1668, the viceroy of the Kingdom of Sardinia was killed in Cagliari in that very same summer after a parliamentary fight for the donativo (Revilla Canora). Regent Queen Mariana had to face with so many international problems in the more critical moment of her regency (Mitchell): don Juan José, the illegitimate son of Philip IV moved with an army towards Madrid to drive out the Jesuit Nithard, favourite of the Queen and leader of the Junta de Gobierno, the institution created by the king with the purpose of avoiding any kind of ministériat (Hermant;Pilo). It did not work, and the internal crisis joined the exterior: the decade of the regency (1665-1675) was complicated for so many reasons but that kind of “crisis in the crisis” that occurred in 1668 needed a specific focus to explain both internal and external political attitude of such a powerful monarchy.
Paula Pinto Costa, Professor, University of Porto, Portugal.
John Vella, Visiting Lecturer, University of Malta, Malta.
11:30-13:00 Session 2
Coordinator: Jayoung Che, Head, History Unit, ATINER & Visiting Professor, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea.
Miriam Diez Bosch, Vice-Dean, Blanquerna Foundation, Spain. Title: Religious Freedom and the Pandemic in the Mediterranean. The Case Study of Catalonia.
Freedom of religion and belief is a fundamental human right and a wide diversity of confessions live together in the Mediterranean region. However, every year there are many motivated incidents against religious communities, including hate speech graffiti in temples, discrimination towards women wearing the hijab… In other words, obstacles as well as violations of this right are present in the day-to-day life of religious communities. In addition, these ones have been aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic due to the restrictions and limitations it brought. As it is not only a task for religious communities to protect this right, but also for administrations, politicians, media, academics… the Chair on Religious Freedom was launched in Catalonia to focus on research and raise awareness of this right in this specific area. In this context, this investigation aims to analyze the perception of religious communities regarding religious freedom in Catalonia. How do they cope with the violation of this right? Do they count with the public administration’s help? How have pandemic restrictions affected the religious communities pursuit of religious freedom? Through focus groups and in-depth interviews with representatives and members of all the religious communities, including catholics, evangelists, muslims, buddhists, etc. in Catalonia, the project aims to find answers to those posed questions and develop proposals to improve the legislation, regulations and public policies, regarding freedom of religion and belief.
Maria Fregidou-Malama, Professor, University of Gävle, Sweden. Title: Construction of Networks in International Marketing of Healthcare Services: Elekta in South Africa.
The healthcare sector has emerged as a major player in recent times, considering the pandemic, AIDS, and cancer that has affected people in South Africa and other countries in the world. This research aims to increase understanding on how networks develop and impact international marketing strategy of healthcare services in an emerging market context. The following research question is addressed: How does Elekta develop relationships and networks in marketing healthcare services in the emerging market of South Africa? The marketing of healthcare is complex in an emerging market context as for institutional constraints and the impact of cultural barriers in the local market. We analyse how the service provider deals with market restrictions by developing relationships and networks in the local context. The research is based on a case study on Elekta in South Africa, a Swedish multinational firm in cancer treatment. A qualitative method is applied. Interviews were used, direct observation, company documents and annual reports. We select a unique case as a training center is established in Cape Town to educate health care practitioners in cancer treatment and expand the healthcare service in South Africa and other markets in Africa. For the analysis of the data we identify, develop, and analyse themes. The findings show that for international marketing of healthcare services it is essential to follow rules and regulations to develop relationships with authorities and local bureaucracy. As the service offered is regulated, it is important to standardize the offering and offer the same quality of service as in developed countries. Relationships with academic hospitals and local customers, offering access to professional experience world-wide, and know-how, influence the development of trust. Establishing relationships with complementary firms, use of local expertise, adaptation to local institutional arrangements, offering help for planning and cheap high-quality solutions are vital for network development and marketing of healthcare services in an emerging market. The research emphasizes that to succeed with marketing of healthcare, it is imperative to do not think only about profits for the firm but to show interest for and contribute to the development of infrastructure in public healthcare and the wellbeing of local people. The study provides a conceptual framework on the process of networks and trust development in international marketing of healthcare services in an emerging market and maintains the value of adapting to both formal and informal institutions. It is argued, relationships to the government must be established and to show interest in public healthcare to gain legitimacy in the local market to be able to market the healthcare service. Managers should adapt the marketing mix by sharing and transferring knowledge and appreciating the learning from local businesses and people. This study is limited to healthcare, one multinational Swedish company and South Africa as emerging market. We suggest, comparative future studies that concentrate on other emerging markets and industries to generalize the results. Hopefully the study will encourage researchers to study relationships, to promote marketing of services in international markets, emerging and advanced, and compare the strategy developed.
Ana Margarida Arruda, Professor, University of Lisbon, Portugal. Title: Mediterranean and Atlantic: A Symbiotic Relationship. Data from Portugal.
The presence of Mediterranean people in the European Atlantic front is documented since the last 9th century BCE in Portuguese coast sites. This presence, preceded by sporadic contacts during the Late Bonze Age, must be read in the context of the Phoenician colonization of the Far West, and represent a significant rupture in social, cultural, and economic terms for the indigenous people. Even if some of the settlements were occupied earlier, the installation of Mediterranean colonizers represented a significative demographic increase, and changes in forms and contents. In first place we must highlight the urban characteristics of these “news” places, illustrated by the size, the population density, cultic public areas, full time specialization of labor and use of writing, characteristics of a city, according to Gordon Childe “list”. New architectural plans and building techniques are introduced, as well as different foods and ways of cooking and eating them in distinct ceramics vessels. New gods, ritual, and cults arrived. The relations with Western Phoenician colonies become preferential. The Atlantic front of the Iberian Peninsula becomes Mediterranean.
Bok Hee Kim, Professor, Andong National University, South Korea. Title: Origin of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and Introduction and Spread of Modern Mixed Martial Arts.
The purpose of this study is to trace the origin of mixed martial arts in Pankration in ancient Greece, and to clarify the emergence of modern mixed martial arts and the process of introduction and spread to the Asian region in detail. Pankration was invented by the ancient Greek heroes Theseus and Hercules to defeat a terrifying monster or ferocious lion. The pankration game was first introduced in the 33rd Olympic Games in 648 B.C. The rules of pankration were created by Leukaros and were the most necessary events for warrior training. Therefore, it can be confirmed that pankration in ancient Greece is a fighting sport of a primitive fighting style using all techniques, which can be seen as the origin of modern mixed martial arts. Modern mixed martial arts have its origins in the ballitudo competitions that have been popular in Brazil since the 1920s. In the late 1970s, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu masters moved to the United States and planned an irregular martial arts competition, laying the groundwork for American mixed martial arts. In the 1970s, Antonio Inoki from Brazil spread mixed martial arts in Japan. Korea’s first mixed martial arts, Prokesture, was founded by professional wrestlers in 1964, but Prokesture disappeared because it did not receive permission for group registration from the Ministry of Education. After that, mixed martial arts was revived in 2000 when the martial arts research group Amrok was formed, and in 2001 Lee Dongi founded the first MMA club. Then, in 2002, Korea’s first amateur mixed martial arts competition ‘KPW’ was held and in 2003, mixed martial arts competition ‘Spirit MC’ was launched and spread. Mixed martial arts spread around the world after the U.S. Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) competition in 1993 and the U.S. mixed martial arts regulations enacted in 2000. The rules of modern mixed martial arts allow you to attack most parts of the body except for the vitals. Therefore, it is conducted according to rules similar to the pankration of ancient Greece, and it appears that hundreds of mixed martial arts organizations around the world are holding mixed martial arts competitions.
Merve Yanar Gürce, Professor, American International University, Kuwait
Marisa Almeida Araujo, Auxiliar Professor, Lusiada University, Portugal.
13:00-14:30 Session 3
Coordinator: Steven Oberhelman, Professor of Classics, Holder of the George Sumey Jr Endowed Professorship of Liberal Arts, and Interim Dean, Texas A&M University, USA.
Raphael Bar El, Professor, Sapir Academic College, Israel. Title: Startups in a Peripheral Region: An Empirical Analysis of Relevant Ecosystem Factors in Israel.
s study identifies factors that explain why startups concentrate in urban centres to inform policies that promote innovation in the periphery. We surveyed startups in the metropolitan region of Tel-Aviv and peripheral regions about their typology and the importance and availability of ecosystem factors. We tested our hypotheses with an empirical data analysis of responses to closed questionnaires distributed to 202 randomly selected startups: 157 startups are located in the central Tel Aviv metropolitan area, which is the core of Israel’s technological activity, and 45 are located in the southern peripheral region of Beer-Sheva. We found that startups at the periphery and in the centre do not basically differ in their conception of the ‘rules of the game’ of innovation activity: they all attach similar levels of importance to all relevant ecosystem factors, except for government financial support, which is considered as most critical in the periphery. The analysis demonstrated the impact of ecosystem factors on startups’ location decisions, including mainly government support, but also the availability of collaboration with suppliers and consumers, foreign investments, and venture capital. A cluster analysis resulted in the identification of three clusters: startups typically located in the centre (mostly dealing with open innovation, R&D based, with international links), startups typically located in the periphery (also R&D based, but mostly located in science parks, dealing with closed innovation, with no international links), and ‘footloose’ startups, which can be located either in the centre or in the periphery (not R&D based, with no international links, not located in science parks).
Antonia María Ruiz Jiménez, Associate Professor, Pablo de Olavide University, Spain. Rafael Zambrana, Student, Pablo de Olavide University, Spain. Title: New Gender Voting Gaps in Spain. Why do Women Vote for Extreme Right Parties?
Most extreme populist right-wing parties in Europe can be characterized as men’s parties. Women are underrepresented among extreme populist right-wing voters. Vox is the representative of this party’s family in Spain. In 2019 general elections, male represented 61% of VOX’s voters, against 38% among women. In this proposal, our main question revolves around the meaning of this gender gap in Spain, what shall also give us some hints about its interpretation in other European countries. In understanding and explaining the gender gap in this project, VOX is hold to belong to family of extreme populist right-wing parties, on the rise in Europe, sharing the same oppositional gender discourse. Nativism is perhaps the key central feature identified as distinctive of populist right-wing parties. Rhetorical opposition to gender and sexual equality is central to nativism in these parties. Women are central in the nativist discourses: 1) as the biological and cultural reproductive body of the nation (demographic nationalism) ; and, 2) as an exclusionary mechanism, to the extent that they (and sexual minorities) should be protected from aggressive aliens and regressive ideologies (mostly in relation to Islam) . Why do men vote for VOX in Spain? Why do women vote for VOX in Spain? Do they hold different rationales for such a voting? Does sex-and-gender needs and demands play any role in such voting behaviour? This proposal will develop a first exploratory analysis to gender voting behavior, testing the “globalization losers” hypothesis against our new proposal of a “feminist losers” hypothesis, holding both male and female as limited rationality voters in our models, and putting oppositional gender discourses on the centre of this research. For that we use post-electoral studies produced by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Investigations, which would be pooled into a single database.
Nellie Munin, Associate Professor, Zefat Academic College, Israel. Title: With a Little Help from my Friends: Trading Electricity for Water – Is it Inevitable.
In November 2021 a Declaration of Intent was concluded between Israel, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It provided for a feasibility examination of a deal according to which Israel will supply Jordan drinking water it desalinates while Jordan will supply Israel electricity produced by solar systems located in its territory, established and operated by a UAE company. In November 2022 a MOU was concluded between Israel and Jordan, another step towards effectuating this project. Since both these products are artificially produced, allegedly each partner could have produced the respective product necessary for its own use. This article thus questions the economic and political logic behind this agreement. Reviewing the political, psychological, and economic literature for such scenarios, and implementing the insights so gained to this project, the article contends that it is a trust-building project, which becomes possible due to former trust-building collaborations between Israel and Jordan, since the conclusion of their peace treaty. It creates interdependence between them regarding decisive issues of water and electricity. Such interdependence reduces the asymmetry between them and Jordan’s sense of relative vulnerability. Its very existence serves as security against hostilities. It benefits the respective populations, thus having a broadly positive effect that should invoke high public support. The involvement of two strong external powers: the US and the UAE stabilize this system, politically and financially.
Isaac Degani, Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. Title: Recent Revolutionary Developments In the Strategic Arena of Israel.
Only one or two decades ago such developments were unimaginable. These developments turned the Israeli political and strategic position dramatically. Hence in order to comprehend the scope of that change and the reasons for it there is a need to divide the strategic arena of Israel into five demarcations. The first one is the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Actually within this Jurisdiction, which is still under political debate, Israel employs a reasonable regime of security. The second demarcation includes four countries which have a direct land border with Israel: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. Lebanon had never presented a real strategic threat against Israel. Syria which in the past presented a threat against Israel has been destroyed and that threat does not exist anymore. Jordan today is actually shielded by Israel and the Egyptians maintain plausible relations with Israel and moreover the two countries collaborate against radical Islamic terror. The third demarcation includes Middle Eastern countries which do not have a direct border with Israel, however their bilateral connections with Israel have some importance: Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Libya, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, The Emirates and Ethiopia. A review of the developments between Israel and these countries will be presented. The fourth demarcation includes the superpowers: USA, Russia, China, India and the EU. While Israel’s relations with the USA are excellent and cordial, as it is from 1967 and on, the relations with Russia turned upside down. Today the Russians maintain good relations with Israel while in the past they (As Soviets) were involved in direct fighting against Israel in 1967, 1n 1969-1970, and in 1973. Today the Russians are collaborating intimately and share interests with Israel on the Syrian battle field. The same upside down phenomenon has happened with India and China, while with the EU, Israel’s connections are characterized by ups and downs. The Fifth demarcation is probably the most important one of all. It has no territory. Obviously it includes Science and Technology of which Israel is a world leading force. Some fundamentals and examples of this phenomenon will be presented.
Orna Almog, Deputy Head, Politics & International Affairs Unit, ATINER & Senior Lecturer (Retired), Kingston University, UK.
Democracy was born in the Mediterranean basin alongside with almost all the known political systems in the world today. Since antiquity, the qualitative merits of the various political systems have been discussed in such masterpieces as in Herodotus ‘Histories’ and Aeschylus ‘The Persians’. And, of course, in Thucydides ‘The Peloponnesian War’, which includes Pericles’s ‘Funeral Oration’; a praise of the Athenian political system. In all these works, the various political systems were compared using qualitative (mostly ethical) criteria. However, the difficulty is to evaluate a democratic political system using a quantitative index. In this paper, I use two well-known indices of democracy (EUI and Freedom House) to evaluate cross country differences on the level and the trend of democracy in the Mediterranean basin. Based on this evidence, two main conclusions emerge. First, substantial differences exist between countries and group of countries in the Mediterranean based on geography. Second, and overall assessment shows that democracy in the area is declining. Keywords: Democracy, Mediterranean Basin, Isegoria, Isonomy, Isocracy, Isoteleia, Isopoliteia
16:00-17:30 Session 4
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta, Researcher, ATINER.
Dafna Kaffeman, Senior Lecturer, Bezalel Academy for Art and Design, Israel. Title: Tripod Academic Journal.
Tripod is a peer-reviewed, tri-lingual academic journal of the Department of Ceramics and Glass Design at Bezalel, first published in the beginning of 2018. The online journal lays the foundation for a research field in the Department’s areas of knowledge, and it is intended to provide a platform for the research activity conducted within the Department and outside it. The journal seeks to develop the discourse in the fields of materiality and craft, and especially it intends to consolidate the discussion within those fields through a multidisciplinary dialog, which opens up channels to new, invigorating contexts between the various disciplines. The journal’s encouragement of the formation of new research paths also reflects the will to establish a wide community of scholars, creators and collaborators from diverse knowledge fields both in Israel and abroad. In addition, this platform aims to enable a fertile dialog between theoretical study and material study, while developing an alternative discourse outside conventional categories, which gives rise to complex bodies of knowledge that inspire thinking and action. My lecture will explore the importance of the journal in view of the culture in the Mediterranean area. Focusing on materials such as ceramics and glass, from the fundamentals of the Mediterranean culture, I will explore topics published in the first three issues of the journal. Such as The Effect of Arab Pottery on Early Israeli Pottery as Seen Through the Story of the Arab Water Jugs, the folk pottery of Hebron, Technological Inventions and Innovations, Cognitive and Social Factors as Evolutionary Forces, Hebron Glass, and more.
Marco Giampaoletti, Research Fellow, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Fabrizio Tucci, Full Professor, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Title: Reforestation of Urban Districts in Mediterranean Climate: New Decarbonization Models for Cities.
The transformation of cities and urban and peri-urban districts into flexible, adaptive and sustainable organisms, under the most recent European policy proposals on climate, energy, transportation, land and resource use, have become today’s issues that can no longer be postponed. Climate change, increases in impacts from carbon emissions, accelerated in the last year by greater reliance on coal due to the ongoing energy and geopolitical crisis, the increased cost of finding and supplying natural gas on which member countries depend for more than 54 percent, determine urgent policy measures to make city dwellers more responsible and resilient toward impacts generated and derived from economic, social and environmental changes. In particular, if cities and urban districts are primarily responsible for producing more than 75 percent of global carbon emissions and consuming more than 70 percent of natural resources, they now become the first victims of the dramatic consequences of climate change; floods, sectorized adverse weather events, landslides, sea level rise due to melting glaciers and erosion of the coastal dune system, and heat waves define the magnitude of phenomena whose unpredictability is far beyond the current policies of individual nations and which are unlikely to be controlled without a common policy direction on climate change mitigation at the global level. Today, urban districts have the opportunity to become real players in the fight against climate change through serious decarbonization actions, a challenge that is as urgent and necessary as ever, through the issues defined as “crucial” today, such as the use of renewable energy sources, emissions reduction, the public transport system and private mobility, and the responsible management and maintenance of natural resources. Urban regeneration measures aimed at the decarbonization of cities and urban districts can include reforestation and afforestation practices as well as actions, strategies, interventions, falling under environmental technology solutions, such as, for example, Nature Based Solutions, capable of increasing the sustainability of urban systems, the recovery of degraded ecosystems and the implementation of adaptive interventions capable of protecting, managing and safeguarding them sustainably, providing benefits for humanity and biodiversity. These objectives introduce the focus that has been experimentally analyzed through the study, census and subsequent cataloging of more than 100 tree and shrub species present in the Mediterranean basin according to their carbon uptake and storage capacities, defining a synoptic framework useful, for the actors in the field, in forestry and urban reforestation. These solutions led to the drafting of a detailed database through experimental research that took place in a public housing district in the Municipality of Rome Capital, the subject of a proposed urban regeneration, numerically quantifying the carbon absorbed and stored for each individual species. The topic is of great scientific relevance in light of national and European strategies and in the proposal, put forward by the European Commission, on the New EU Forest Strategy Fit for 55.
Giulia Terranova, Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Milan, Italy. Title: The Responsibility of Non-Profit Organizations’ Directors: A Comparative Approach.
The importance of the t hird sector is nowadays increasin g in European and extra European countries, due, among other reasons, to the crisis of the public sector that cannot satisfy all the needs of individuals and of the socie ty The growth of the quantities of non profit organizations and their importance, also in terms of the am o unt of capital inves ted, especially under the Covid 19 crisis, raised the attention of many legal systems that recently have renovated the ir legislature framework on the third sector. The paper aims at focusing on the discipline of the responsibility of the non profit organizations ’ directors , under a comparative perspective in order to understand which are the similarities and the differences among the legal sys tems and to learn if there is a more effective and/or more efficient regulati on of this field. First , the attention will be drawn to the United States’ legal framework, where the absence of a public welfare contributed to the growth of the third sector since the half of the XX th century : the analysis is particularly interesting under a comparative point of view because this legal syste m knew a discrepancy between th e legislative, the jurispruden tial and the doctrin al formant. While the statutes and the majority of the jurisprudence appl y the business corporations’ rules also to the non profit organizations a consistent part of the American doctrine supported a more severe discipline of the directors’ due mainly to the absence in the non profit entities of the category o f shareholders that in business organizations can control directly their conduct The paper then will analyze the discipline under the UK common law system, where the trust law is applied also to the third sector : the directors’ responsibility follows the rules applied to the trustees and , c omparing t o the American legal framework it is more severe The following part of the paper will focus on some civil law legal syst ems and, in particular, on the French, the Belgi an and the Italian legal system : the last t w o have been recently reformed, respective ly in 2019 and 2017 The French and the Belgian legal systems distinguish the rules applicable to the non profit organizations from the ones stated for the for profit corporations : directors of third sector entities have less severe standard of conduct and of responsibility . While the Italian legal system has traditionally adopted solutions that were similar to the French and the Belgian ones , the recent reform of 2017 that enacted the Third Sector Code stated that the directors responsibility has to be regulated by the articles of the Italian civil code applicable to business corporations. The majority of the Italian doctrine criticized this solution , stating that the non profit corporations need a mor e flexible regime, also because many times the directors’ offices are not remunerated. In the last part, the paper will try to demonstrate why the application of the for profit corporations’ rules could be a more efficient and effective solution for the re gulations of directors’ responsibility , at least for the non profit corporations that overcome certain thresholds of capital invested or donations received
Jose Manuel Castillo Lopez, Professor, University of Granada, Spain. Title: Myths, Fallacies, Paradoxes, Mistakes and Virtual Water in the Mediterranean.
It would not be true to say that everything remains the same between us in terms of inland waters after the course of the last three decades. Indeed, after the 1995 drought or perhaps coinciding with it, the social movements and a very important part of the scientists and even numerous members of the administrations themselves have dealt profusely with the issue of continental waters. As a result of the numerous books, articles in scientific journals, congresses, etc. the so-called New Water Culture, demand management, water quality, etc. Today they are expressions widely disseminated among academics and managers, in such a way that we either consider ourselves co-religionists with these new trends in water policy or, at least, few dare to speak out publicly against them. But, in reality, have the aforementioned changes and others that have occurred substantially affected the principles that inspire water policy in Mediterranean Europe? Or, on the contrary, every time there is less rainy seasons, “the old ghosts” appear? In this paper I am going to analyze some aspects of the water situation in the European Mediterranean and, above all, the management model that has been developed in recent decades. Widely disclosed terms, expressions and concepts such as dumping water into the sea, hydraulic works are of general interest, wet Spain and dry Spain, the transfer will solve the problem definitively, water deficit, water must be distributed with solidarity, everyone has the right to water, water is a public good , etc. They will be reviewed from a scientific approach. My conclusion is that The New Culture of Water, from the South, requires prior recognition that the greatest manifestations of water scarcity are not produced by climatic conditions, but rather because of the economic and social development model followed, by the mismanagement of the competent institutions and, definitely, because the conflicts evidenced between the different users have been resolved solely with arguments of political and, ultimately, economic power.
Sara Abdoh, Assistant Professor, Sculpture, Architectural Formation and Restoration Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Benha University, Egypt.
Gabriella Pappada, External Researcher, University of Salento, Italy.
17:30-19:00 Session 5
Coordinator: Olga Gkounta, Researcher, ATINER.
Gloria Marchetti, Professor, University of Milan, Italy. Title: The Changes in the Approach to Environmental Protection by the European Union and its Member States and the Regulatory Innovations in Italy.
The speech aims at analyzing the recent changes in the approach to environmental protection by the European Union and its Member States, with particular regard to the Italian regulatory innovations. The European Union has gradually become aware of the need for interventions aimed at protecting the environment. Thus, there has been an evolution of the provisions of the EU Treaties which have included a commitment of the Member States to guarantee a “high level” of environmental protection. This is also thanks to a greater awareness, at the international level, of environmental problems which led, among other things, to the proclamation of a series of principles at the Rio Conference in 1992. The Rio Conference has started a process of elaboration of the so-called “Global conventions” dedicated to the environment problems. More recently, the European Union, especially with the “Green Deal” and the Next Generation EU programs, has strengthened the ecological vision of environmental issues, aimed at ensuring greater protection of ecological elements (climate, ecosystems, biodiversity, etc.) and sustainable development. In this context, Italy, in compliance with its European and international obligations, has launched a process of reforms aimed at strengthening environmental protection. On one side, the Italian Government, with the implementation of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PNRR), which is part of the Next Generation EU program, has started an ecological transition, laying the foundations for a strong commitment to address the environmental/ecological issues. On the other side, the Italian Parliament recently approved constitutional law no. 1/2022 implementing “Amendments to Articles 9 and 41 of the Constitution regarding environmental protection”. The constitutional revision introduced protection of the environment ― which was originally mentioned in the Constitution for the sole purpose of distributing the legislative competences between the State and the Regions even though the protection of the environment has been positivized by the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court ― among the fundamental principles of the Italian legal system. The recent constitutional law ― through the amendment of articles 9 and 41 ― has included in the Constitution an express reference to the protection of the environment, biodiversity and ecosystems, also in the interest of future generations, and an additional limit to the exercise of economic activities that must be now addressed also for environmental purposes. The purpose of the speech is to examine: the impact of these European and Italian changes on the effective protection of the environment; the impact of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan on ecological transition policies in Italy; the consequences of the Italian constitutional reform of 2022 on the action of the legislator, public administration and constitutional jurisprudence regarding the balance between environmental protection and other constitutional values and rights.
Fabrizio Conti, Lecturer, John Cabot University, Italy. Title: Classics, Humanism, and Liberal Arts Education: From the Past to the Future.
My paper aims to unite past present and future through the classical and humanistic traditions by showing how classical studies can still be considered fundamental in education especially in the liberal arts. Thus, there is in Western culture a line that connects the past to the future and that line passes through the re-evaluation of the role of the classics, mediated by the humanistic and renaissance experience, and rediscovered today even by entrepreneurs and political leaders. This paper aims to discuss the need for such a rediscovery and the prospects it may open up and it will also be the opportunity to briefly present a book on the same topic, titled Humanism ans Beyond, that I have edited along with Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, a philosopher colleague of mine from my own university.
Zeynep Ozde Atesok, Assistant Professor, Istanbul University, Turkey. Title: Back to the Origins of European Union – Turkey Relations: A Comparative Analysis of the Ankara and Athens Agreements.
As its oldest associate member, Turkey’s more than 60 years of relations with the EU, its unique character based on complexities, persistent ambivalences but ever growing interdependencies so far have triggered a lot of attention in the EU-Turkish studies. Despite its long history from the early days of Turkey’s first application for associate membership to the EEC in 1959 to current developments, 1963 Ankara Association Agreement along with the accession process still forms the institutional foundations of the EU-Turkey bilateral relations. In that regards, the article aims to situate the Ankara Agreement and the association established between Turkey and the EEC in a historical and comparative context showing its origins, design and content and how it differs from the other agreement-namely the Athens Agreement signed with Greece in 1962- and association established at the same period but resulted in two different pathways for these two countries in their relation to the EU. The study elaborates on the origins of this frequently contested but institutionalized pathway through a comparative historical analysis that focus on the institution building aspect of the agreement as well as its shortcomings. Through a process analysis with a specific focus on the institutional design and comparison of the agreement with the Greek counterpart reveals that neither parties (EEC and Turkey) had strong clear specific interests in the association that the negotiations resulted in a vague agreement which opened the way for interpretation hence contestation till today. In other words, in the lack of clear material gains and shared beliefs between the signatory parties, the agreement and the institutionalized pathway it created had limited capacity to constrain contestations rather than a detailed and specific agreement which would limit the scope of interpretation and provide a clear pathway. Therefore, the origins of this complex and paradoxical relations between EU and Turkey which exhibit clear signs of ambivalences and uncertainty then can be traced back to the Association Agreement of 1963 and the institutional pathway designed and implemented. Although the relations have changed considerably as well as the integration and global context, this retrospective look on the early relations and design of the institutional scheme can contribute to our contemporary understanding of the relations and current problems.
Gian Luigi Corinto, Associate Professor, University of Macerata, Italy. Title: The Tourist Economy as Embedded in Social Networks in Tuscan Versilia.
Since 2016, the consolidated text of the regional tourist system of Tuscany has defined “a homogeneous tourist destination” the whole territory of Versilia. The area is not homogeneous in many respects and is characterized by divisions depending on geo-historical and social motives. The most perceived one is the division between Alta Versilia and Bassa Versilia. Based on the theoretical existence of a net of social relations that influences the economic-territorial outcomes, the survey has put in evidence how the relational network connecting the tourist companies of the coastal area does not extend to the entire Versilia, completely excluding the hilly and mountainous area. This network of company managers, however, is self-aware and has equipped itself with modern digital communication tools to improve the efficiency of the entire tourism industry. Seen “from the coast”, the territory of Alta Versilia is a virgin strategic resource because it offers the possibility of future differentiation of the tourist offer, currently specialized only in the bathing segment.
Sinan Sonmez, Professor, Atilim University, Turkey.
Fadwa Kirrish, Associate Dean & Director, Umma College, Israel.
Asli Gül Öncel, Associate Professor, Galatasaray University, Turkey.
Giulia Maria Gallotta, Researcher, University of Bari, Italy
20:30-22:30 Greek Night
Tuesday 4 April 2023
09:30-11:00 Session 6
Coordinator: Maria Fregidou-Malama, Professor, University of Gävle, Sweden.
George Thomas Kapelos, Professor, Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada. Title: Architectural Modernism in the Mediterranean and Toronto’s 1958 City Hall and Square Competition.
Toronto’s 1958 architectural design competition for its City Hall and Civic Square attracted over 500 entries from architects in 43 countries. 27 architects entered from six countries in the Mediterranean basin: Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Spain and Syria. Overwhelmingly, their competition entries were distinctly “modern”. Much larger than the Sydney Opera House competition of the year before, Toronto’s competition signified the global reach of architectural modernity. Examining entries from the Mediterranean diaspora, this paper interrogates Toronto’s competition as a key marker of the worldwide expansion of modern design values and explores its distinct interpretation in countries bordering the Mediterranean sea. The paper presents details on the entries from Greece (1), Israel (2), Italy (16), Lebanon (1), Spain (6) and Syria (1). They are presented as significant examples of competition entries, demonstrating the universality of modernity. The 27 entries represent a significant cohort of modern Mediterranean architects. Their designs exhibit modern tropes of monumentality, the renewed civic heart and the new empiricism – all prominent themes in post-war debates on architectural modernity. The research analyzes submissions of entries from the Mediterranean countries, compares their forms, and correlates proposed designs with architect-entrants globally. Archival research assembled into a data base provides basic information on each entrant. This includes demographics, architectural education; professional career, location, language group, and socio-economic and political conditions in their country of origin. Designs are assessed typologically by form, material and response to modern tropes. This analysis is aggregated and correlated with entrant data. When assembled, this evidence forms two interrelated data sets: first, a “collective profile” of a significant cohort of post-war architects and their aspirations at a pivotal moment in post-war modernity, and second, a clear picture of the world-wide expansion of modern architecture, its overwhelming preponderance, and its multiple iterations, forms and approaches. Video footage, ephemera and interviews with entrants still living, provide supporting information. Toronto’s competition was influenced by early post-war activities of the International Congress on Modern Architecture (CIAM). A number of architects deeply involved with CIAM were on the competition jury. Toronto surprised itself and the world when it presented its new city hall to the public in 1958. The jurors worked their way through the schemes to select the winner, Viljo Revell of Finland. The choice signalled that modernism was now a global phenomenon. As the competition’s professional advisor candidly stated, “it’s hard to tell, what scheme came from where.” This analysis confirms his view, revealing the fact that modernity was evident in every corner of the globe.
Sonia Hewitt, Assistant Professor, Acadia University, Canada. Title: Renovations and Restorations: Transformations in the House of Orpheus at Volubilis.
The House of Orpheus, named after the mosaic of its principal reception room, is a major tourist attraction at the Roman site of Volubilis in Morocco. Since its excavation in the 1920s and publication in 1941, there has been on-going work to consolidate the archaeological remains. Little documentation of these restauration, or of evidence for the ancient renovations which produced the preserved layout of the house, exists. This paper presents an updated plan of the house, with special attention to the relationship of the domestic baths and twin olive presses to the residential parts of the house. This study shows that the baths, with furnace room encroaching on the main courtyard of the Orpheus room, were a later addition to the house. However, the olive presses and adjacent cistern, which support the terrace on which the main reception rooms were built, must have been planned at the same time as the room with the Orpheus mosaic. Evidence that the cistern connected to the urban water supply and the use of limestone paving for the press beds demonstrate significant investment in these long-functioning, productive installations. Olive pressing, carried out on a significant scale, was designed to be visually impressive to visitor and stranger. The modest bathing facilities demonstrate a more functional interpretation to supplement the other publicly accessible baths at the site.
Fernando Orellana Torres, Lawyer, Universidad Católica Del Norte, Chile. Miguel Lecaros Alvarez, Historian, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Chile. Title: The Vestiges of the Readers in the Books of Classical Philosophy and Law at the Recoleta Dominica Library in Santiago de Chile (s.XVIII).
Research on bibliographic collections and books written or published during the colonial period has a long tradition in Chile, from the pioneering work of José Toribio Medina to the most recent publications. Despite this, few studies have been carried out on the private collections of some religious or public authority. In the same way, there are few publications on the libraries that were formed in the convents of the Jesuit fathers, Dominican friars, among other spaces of knowledge. Likewise, there are recent investigations that have dealt with studying the circulation of some work or of knowledge in the different spaces of knowledge that existed in Santiago de Nueva Extremadura. In the following paper, the vestiges left by readers in some of the law and philosophy books of the Recoleta Dominica collection of the Biblioteca Patrimonial Recoleta Dominica are analyzed, considering the theoretical approaches of H.J. Jackson on the writings on the edges of printed works, based on the study of the marginal notes left by readers that are registered in the “reference books” found in the Dominica Recoleta Fund of the Dominican Historical Archive, in order to understand how the reading community of the Dominican convent was linked in the eighteenth century with the different volumes that are preserved to this day in the Recoleta Dominica Heritage Center
María José Martínez, Professor, University of Basque Country, Spain. Title: Status as a Foreigner: The Literature on Latin American Migrated Women in Europe. Mediterranean/Atlantic Studies.
The paper presents the investigations carried out in the research project “Condición de extranjería, Status as a foreigner: The Literature on Latin American Migrated Women in Europe”. Project supported by the Spanish Ministry of Culture (In the most competitive call of the Ministry) and of which I am the IP (Principal Investigator). The project is the first systematic study of the literary production of Latin American women writers in Europe, in the 21st century. It carries out a complete interdisciplinary research, based on philology, socio-criticism and postcolonial studies. As the publishing market and specialized critics predict, the future of Hispanism in its globalization, and that it is in the diasporic de / relocation of its writing where the rising value of its literature resides. In this sense, this field of research has not been considered in its complexity within the European sphere, and it is yet to be carried out from a gender perspective. We use “de / relocation”, terms from the field of transnational economics to emphasize the reification of bodies and identities in the culture of late capitalism and the intricate relationship between the different human and scientific fields in postmodernity. The paper analyzes the themes and the representational strategies generated from and around the de / relocation of Latin American women in Europe. The concepts of condición de extranjería structure the analysis designed by this paper: (a) The conditions of production, circulation and reception of the works are studied showing the tension of this literature with the hegemonic canon of the different countries it is produced. (b) The paper describes how political, economic and sexual codes are articulated in the works of LA women writing in Europe and, in turn, how gender and resistance are combined in the voices of displacement. The paper explores how literature shows the power relations involved to Latin American female migration in the complexity of its manifestations: sexual fetishization, political racialization, and loss of subjectivation. Hence, it aims to make the exclusive particularities of female migration visible, and to examine the collective representations of exoticism and Latin American subalternity in Europe.
Sara Abdoh, Assistant Professor, Sculpture, Architectural Formation and Restoration Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Benha University, Egypt.
11:00-13:00 Session 7
Coordinator: Antonia María Ruiz Jiménez, Associate Professor, Pablo de Olavide University, Spain.
Emmanuel Nartey, Lecturer, Open University, UK. Title: Neurological Aspect of Ethics and Integrity: A Fundamental Compound Element of Law and Tax Compliance.
This article argues that ethics and integrity is knowledge of the first and the second kind, not the knowledge of the third kind (knowledge of the third kind is rule of law). This teaches us to distinguish the true forms of legal principles from moral conduct. Therefore, ethics and integrity become the prerequisite for law and tax compliance in modern society. Without both, the doctrine of law and tax compliance may be redundant. The article further makes a point that ethics and integrity must be placed at the foundation of the legal and governance system. The option is to adopt a more proactive approach to the study of human behavior and tax evasion/avoidance. Therefore, the body of disciplines must support the issue of contemporary understanding of human behavior that encourages and facilitates the integration of all aspects of human decision-making. The understanding of human behavior and the educational aspect of decision-making must be instructed on the discourse of ethics and integrity. Further, the article concluded that we must demystify the various approaches to the study of human decision-making and tax compliance to build a template for the spirit of ethics and integrity. The wisdom of antiquity and ancient Greek should guide the template. So that the law can be understood for knowledge and conduct and must become the guide of societal deficiencies. Finally, the article summarises that the study of taxation simply becomes an important part of tax and ethics and integrity study.
Alexander Szívós, PhD Student, University of Pécs, Hungary. Title: The Interaction between Sustainability and Finance.
The concept of sustainable development was described for the first time in 1987 when a group of experts from the World Commission on Environment and Development known as “Brundtland Commission” adopted a recommendation on environmental sustainability, entitled “Our Common Future.” The document issued by the United Nations described sustainable development as a development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Since then, sustainability has received more and more attention over the past years and it’s environmental, social and governance (hereinafter ESG) factors even more so. The theme has long passed the stage of being just about the environment or the climate. The term ESG has a very wide scope. It encompasses an extensive range of considerations, including tax. Major international organizations have recognized the role that taxation could play in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. In years gone by, businesses looked primarily to increasing shareholder returns, paying less attention to how their practices affected the environment and society. However, things have changed since the financial crisis in 2008. Public expectations about corporate tax behavior became a mainstream topic, where there was a growing belief that undertakings were not paying their „fair share” of tax. Furthermore, the abuses exposed in the Panama papers, the Paradise papers and Luxemburg leaks have sharpened this perception. Since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional pressure to the growing importance of responsible corporate behavior, because governments worldwide are facing shortfalls in tax revenues along with increasing social challenges. In the recent years, several international organisations – with the OECD at the forefront – have developed programmes that are specifically designed to combat aggressive tax actions or strategies. In order to give a more realistic view of how can the interaction of ESG and taxation promote economic sustainability, this paper explores the fundamentals of ESG in finance by underlining the emerging role of transparency in taxation by analysing the adopted measures in the reporting frameworks around the globe, primarily in Europe.
Igor Eterović, Assistant Professor, University of Rijeka, Croatia. Josip Guć, Research Assistant, University of Split, Croatia. Title: Distribution and Nature of Bioethical Research by Mediterranean Authors on the Example of the Croatian Bioethical Journals.
Taking the basic goals of the scientific project “EUROBIOMED: From the diversity of traditions to a common Euro-Mediterranean bioethical platform – constructing a tool for dialogue and action (Croatian Science Foundation, HRZZ IP-2020-02)” as a starting point, the presentation investigates important segment of bioethical production by Mediterranean authors. All Croatian journals officially dedicated to bioethical research by their stated journal policy are taken in consideration as a corpus of research: Jahr – European Journal of Bioethics, Synthesis Philosophica and Filozofska istraživanja (Philosophical Investigations). Methodologically, the mentioned corpus is more refined (only scientific articles are taken), the criteria of defining articles as “bioethical” were given by leaning on bibliometric characteristics (titles, key words, and summaries), and the considered approaches for content analysis were presented (from the parameters of EUROBIOMED project). Three dimensions are analyzed. 1) First, the research reveals all Mediterranean countries/regions from which bioethical authors come. 2) Second, topics that are represented in those works are described and categorized under mentioned methodological criteria to provide a basic content analysis. 3) Third, the methodology applied in those articles are critically analyzed and debated in the mentioned project’s framework as a further step of content analysis and broader reflection of bioethical trends among bioethical authors. Apart from the distribution of authors from Mediterranean countries, the results of the analysis should have their potentially broader significance for the issues of representation of Mediterranean topics and methodology concerning bioethics in general, and, indirectly, say much about the relevance of all three mentioned journal in this context, i.e. their place and significance in the bioethical dimension of enriching and contributing to the Mediterranean Studies.
Nermin ElKammar, Manager, Man Ahyaha Organization, Egypt. Title: Teacher Professional Development in Ayyat – Egypt The case-study of the “Book Club”.
Teachers of the twenty-first century are no longer teachers; they assume diverse roles in the classroom including: motivation, support, design, collaboration coaching, asking the right questions, promoting thinking and dialogue, etc. In order for teachers to show such skills and attitude towards learning, knowing that this is not the learning experiences they went through as students, they need an exceptional teacher preparation and professional development program. In Egypt, teachers go through four years of undergraduate studies where they experience the same methodology of learning that is teacher-centered and content-driven. In order for them to transform into twenty-first century teachers, they need to be exposed to several professional development programs and continuous improvement activities. This research is exploring the impact of hosting a Book club among educators in a rural schooling environment. It uses the case study methodology to document and study the case of Ayyat Bookclub that has been implemented since April 2019. The main research question is: How does attending a book club develop educators Intellectually and Socially? With a focus on certains skills and attitudes. From the main findings of the research, it can be deduced that the experience is worth the effort when it comes to the professional development of educators. It also serves as a community building exercise for schools and educational institutions. The skills and attitudes that are developed within this form of professional development are definitely among the many skills that educators in the twenty-first century need to develop. And more efforts within this area from diverse educational institutions can cause the rise of “best practices” and also ideas to further develop more skills and attitudes through this experience.
Sarasvathie Reddy, Senior Lecturer, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Orhe Arek-Bawa, PhD Student, University of KwaZulu-Natal South Africa. Title: Enhancing Employability of Pre-Service Teachers in the Digital Age.
In a world characterised by exponential technological advancements associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), employers seek graduates with technological and cross-functional skills to enhance productivity and growth. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many traditional contact higher education institutions, such as the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), South Africa, transitioned abruptly to online remote forms of learning to save their academic programmes. In support of the move to online learning, the institution organised workshops for the university community to facilitate the transition to virtual modes of teaching and learning. This transition simultaneously catalysed the preparation of graduates for the digital age. At the School of Education (SoE), where this study was located, pre-service teachers who are predominantly from the lower end of the socioeconomic digital divide navigated digital technologies to further their education in preparation for the 4IR classroom. However, the South African context prevails with unstable electricity supply and internet connectivity issues that constantly disrupts online teaching and learning. Thus this study is concerned about the extent to which pre-service teachers’ digital learning experiences fostered the requisite TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge) and other cross-functional skills needed for the 4IR classroom. Framed by the TPACK and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this paper employs a mixed-method approach to understand the participants digital learning experiences with a view to determining the extent to which they are prepared for the digitized classroom. Data was generated from three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires randomly distributed to undergraduate pre-service teachers in the SoE followed by qualitative in-depth interviews with twelve purposively sampled participants representing the different clusters of disciplines that the SoE is organised around. Insights from this paper will benefit academics in their online pedagogical engagements; inform policy directions at the institutional level while supporting research on remote teaching and learning from the students’ perspectives.
Mahir Fisunoğlu, Professor, Cag University, Turkey.
Nino Fonseca, Adjunct Professor, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Portugal.
Amani Ismail, Mass Communications Programme Lead, University of Hertfordshire, Egypt.
14:30-16:00 Session 8 Coordinator: Olga Gkounta, Researcher, ATINER.
Old and New-An Educational Urban Walk
António dos Santos Queirós, Professor, Lisbon University, Portugal. Title: Ecological Civilization, The Fourth Stage of Human Civilization.
This article wants to discuss the environmental crisis, from the perspective that it is a civilizational crises. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights_ UN 1948, will be revisited from an historical and critique perspective. The UN Stockholm Conference 1972 that, for the first time, recognized and characterized the environmental crisis, will be the subject of a critical review. The classic division between the West philosophy and the Oriental philosophy concerning the issue of nature will be analyzed to discovery fundamental differences and common principles and moral rules. On the framework of political philosophy, common responsibilities of liberal democracies and socialist democracies regarding the genesis and evolution of environmental crisis, will be analyzed and the dominant fallacies criticized. This pathway research, concerning the environmental philosophy in the West, conduct to establish a critical principle, the ethical responsibility face to nature and to the transformation of Kantian concept of human reason, into environmental reason, creating new philosopheme, like the concepts of the Land Ethic and Animal ethics, and new imperatives as “ethical imperative of dignity” and the “imperative of perpetual peace” In parallel, that research found a new way opened by the evolution of People’s Republic of China_ PRC. Evolution of new democracy and socialism with Chinese characteristics to a progressive reform and open up and a critical transition to Ecological Socialism, toward the Ecological Civilization. The environmental transformation of PRC in the 20th/21st centuries, can be characterized by the evolution and overcoming of the environmental crisis in China, during four periods: 1949-1976. The period of agrarian reform. extension and industrialization of agriculture and the construction of infrastructure and basic industries ….1976-2005. The opening up and reform period, giving priority to economic and urban growth and energy and technological development, based on coal, relocation, from the West to China of many the polluting industries, the development of tourism without sustainability …2006-2015. The period of the transition to an ecological economy, to the ecological socialist society and to the Beautiful China. The opening up process in every way. Innovation as an engine of the sustainable development. designed to achieve full modernity by 2050. 2016-…The pilot regions of Eco Civilization. Eco civilization will be a new stage of human evolution
Francesco Allegri, Adjunct Professor, University of Siena, Italy. Title: Neither Sanctity of Life nor Quality of Life: A Third Way in Bioethics.
The development of bioethics in the last decades has confronted us with a profound crisis of values. The reflection in this area of research has led to an evident difficulty of the dominant paradigm, the ethics of the sanctity of life, challenged by an ethics of the quality of life that has called into question its main assumptions. If at one time, with regard to acts such as abortion, euthanasia, artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, etc. there was an absolute (i.e. unconditional) prohibition, nowadays this approach has shown its limits and tends to be abandoned, replaced by a liberal attitude which – on the other hand – seems to be permissive about everything, i.e. it seems to move to the extreme opposite respect to an ethics of absolute prohibitions and presenting itself as an ethics of absolute rights. Faced with these two extremes (ethics of absolute prohibitions vs ethics of absolute rights) in my speech I try to develop a plausible “third position” which, while on the one hand rejects as obsolete the old ethics of the sanctity of life, on the other is suspicious of an ethics of the quality of life that no longer recognizes any limits to the principle of autonomy or self-determination. To exemplify this third approach, I will refer to the debates on the beginning of life and the end of life, that is, on the issues of the ontological status of the fetus and euthanasia. On the topic of the status of the fetus, I intend to argue that if it is wrong to attribute to the fetus the same status as a person, as for example an extreme anti-abortion position claims, it is wrong to deny him/it any status, at least from a certain stage of his/its development onwards. I will base my position on a gradualist approach, while the prevailing options are connected to instantaneous approaches, i.e. to the idea that there is a magic moment when a human immediately comes into existence. Instead in a gradualist approach a human being comes into existence gradually. On the topic of euthanasia, if an attitude of absolute closure does not appear convincing, neither is an attitude for which any choice about ourselves, if made with full information and awareness, is automatically permissible from a moral point of view, a cardinal principle of the liberal position. A plausible third way consists in replacing sanctity of life with respect for the person. But respecting the value of person does not mean that we are never justified to anticipate our death. There are anticipations of death that does not violate the respect for the value of our person. For example, in cases of altruistic suicide or when the level of suffering is unbearable and we are at the end of our existence (we have no more important chapters of our life to write).
Mariele Merlati, Associate Professor, University of Milan, Italy. Daniela Vignati, Assistant Professor, University of Milan, Italy. Title: Risk and Opportunity. Italy in the Troubled Mediterranean during the 1970s.
During the Seventies, the Mediterranean area was in turmoil, due to the numerous events occurring at the time: the Cypriote crisis between Greece and Turkey and the strains it raised inside the Atlantic Alliance; the end of dictatorships in Greece, Portugal and Spain which seemed to give way to instability; the steady presence of the Soviet fleet; the decision taken by the Greek Government to leave the Nato military command; the ambiguous posture taken by the Maltese Prime Minister Dom Mintoff, inclined to pursue a more sympathetic stance towards the USSR; the US withdrawal from the Wheelus base in Libya after the coup led by Muammar Gaddafi. Not only were these events seriously endangering Nato’s positions all along the southern flank; they also threatened to jeopardize the stability in Europe and thus the Détente itself, which was founded on the grounds of a mutual, if tacit, interest in preserving the status quo between the two blocs in the Continent. In this scenario, Italy played a double role: on the one hand it contributed to increasing the risks of instability with its own internal instability, but on the other hand it was pivotal in avoiding a neat alteration of the military balance in Southern Europe by keeping Malta from shifting towards the Soviet Union. The paper is two-fold. The first section considers the risks associated with Italian fluctuating domestic scene, and more specifically with the unprecedent rise of the local Communist Party, the PCI (Partito Comunista Italiano). During the so-called Years of Lead, Italy was affected by social turbulence, political terrorism, and violence, whilst it was going through economic decline and skyrocketing inflation. In the meantime, a sharp increase of votes for the PCI ignited fears that the PCI might be next to taking power, thus being able to further weaken the Atlantic Alliance by pushing Italy out of it. The paper investigates the efforts made by the United States to bar the PCI from joining the Italian government, the reasons behind those efforts, and the results they obtained. The second part of the paper analyses the Italian Mediterranean policy, focusing on the relationship between Italy and Dom Mintoff’s Malta. After the 1972 agreement, by which the United Kingdom announced its withdrawal from Malta within 1979, in fact, Italy tried to play a leading role in that Mediterranean theatre, granting Malta’s neutrality, so preventing Soviet and Libyan expansion and influence and carrying out an important service for the Atlantic Alliance. The Italian-Maltese agreement signed in August 1980 was the climax of this process. The paper focuses on Italian foreign policy as well as on perceptions and reactions by the main international partners of Italy. Beyond literature, the analysis relies on documents, both published (Foreign Relations of the United States, Documents on British Policy Overseas) and held by The National Archives in London, the NARA II in Washington D.C., the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library in Atlanta (Georgia), the Archivio Centrale dello Stato in Rome, and the National Archives in Rabat (Malta).
Carlo Artemi, Independent Researcher, Italy. Title: Ettore Majorana: a filo Nazi Scientist?
Ettore Majorana was one of the most famous Italian physicists of the last century and has made significant contributions to the development of physics. He mysteriously disappeared in 1938 and numerous hypotheses have been made about his disappearance. For many decades suicide has been thought of, recently the most accredited hypothesis has become the flight to South America. Much has also been said about his political views. He was referred to as pro-Nazi because of a letter from him in which he justified some anti-Jewish measures. Others have suspected his sympathies for communism. The author reports in this communication the results of his in-depth political analysis of Majorana letters and other facts related to his life which shows that his political ideas were those of a liberal conservative at the turn of the last century.
Alina N. Paranina, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Geography and Nature Management, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russia.
Simone Selva, Tenure-track Senior Assistant Professor, L’Orientale University of Naples, Italy.
The urban walk ticket is not included as part of your registration fee. It includes transportation costs and the cost to enter the Parthenon and the other monuments on the Acropolis Hill. The urban walk tour includes the broader area of Athens. Among other sites, it includes: Zappion, Syntagma Square, Temple of Olympian Zeus, Ancient Roman Agora and on Acropolis Hill: the Propylaea, the Temple of Athena Nike, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon. The program of the tour may be adjusted, if there is a need beyond our control. This is a private event organized by ATINER exclusively for the conference participants.
This paper focuses on the memoir A House in Sicily, published by Virago in 1999, by Daphne Phelps (1911-2005), an Englishwoman who for nearly 60 years lived in Sicily, where she inherited a villa built by her uncle, the painter Robert H. Kitson. In 1899 Kitson, a wealthy gay artist, had left England to join the male homosexual community of expats in Taormina, where he was affectionately nicknamed “the crazy Englishman”. In the 1950s his niece Daphne, an independent young woman with a degree in Psychology, took over the house, Casa Cuseni (today a historic house museum), which she managed on her own until her death, turning it into a Mediterranean “health resort” for British and American intellectuals and artists, such as Roald Dahl, Bertrand Russell, Henry Faulkner and Tennessee Williams and many others. So far neglected by critics, Phelps’s A House in Sicily (translated into Italian in 2005) is a hybrid text, combining memoir, travel account and autobiography. Through its self-effacing narrator, it offers fascinating recollections of life in post-war Sicily from an Englishwoman’s perspective: not that of a passing visitor, but that of the “locandiera”, a foreign subject who became gradually integrated into a social context which was diffident about independent, unmarried women. Phelps’s is the story of a woman who defied the patriarchal social order in Sicily by living in “a very marriageable house” by herself, or rather, with the unique support of another woman, her housekeeper and “soulmate” Concetta Cundari. Phelps’s writings offer the occasion for investigating both the ideological discourses and the material realities through which transnational subjects and intercultural identities are constituted, in particular when solidarities between women in the face of heteropatriarchy are constructed across nationality, social class, and the North/South divide. Analyzing the text from a post-colonial perspective and with a feminist methodology, my paper also interrogates the issues of foreignness/indigeneity underlining how the role of an idealized “South” in this liminal narrative offers the chance for an unexpected network of sisterhood.
Hava Bracha Korzakova, Lecturer, Bar Ilan University, Israel. Title: Classical Reception in the Ukrainian Public Narrative during the Russian-Ukrainian War.
Through various media and social nets in Ukraine during the present war we can notice significant presence of the Classical messages in the Ukrainian public narrative, in contrast with the Russian narrative which lacks those messages almost completely. There are three possible causes for that. First, although the Classical education has its history both in Ukraine and Russia, in Ukraine it is older and more profound. Second, the messages of the Classic tradition suit the needs of the patriotic propaganda in Ukraine, with its tendencies to educate the society in a European spirit and to encourage it to take an inspiration from the examples of the Indo-European “heroic spirit” which has been expressed in the Greek and Roman mythology and historiography. And third, the goal to be accepted as a “full member” among the European nations, including membership in the EU and NATO, even mentioned in the Ukrainian Constitution, as well as the tendency of the current government to strengthen the existing alliances and to establish the new ones with the European countries causes the need to demonstrate the European character of Ukraine as a nation which was isolated from Europe during the Soviet regime in the XX century. On the contrary, the present Russian ideology denies the country’s links to the West as a whole, and consequently denies messages of the Classical tradition and excepts them from the public narrative. Our analysis is based on the examples taken from the Ukrainian media and social nets during 2022.
Georgi Stoyanov, PhD Student, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering, and Geodesy, Bulgaria. Title: Development & Importance of Residential Architecture in Covidism: Exploring Human-Centred Design.
Throughout history, stylistic movements have emerged from world catastrophes. The Covid-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on residential architecture. As people spend more time at home, they are rethinking their living spaces and looking for ways to optimize their lifestyles and health. Many are now seeking out residential architects who can help them create comfortable, functional, and safe homes that meet their changing needs. In response to the pandemic, residential architects are redesigning homes to promote healthy lifestyle habits and create more space for work, play, and relaxation. They are incorporating features such as outdoor areas, flexible floor plans, and ample storage to make life at home more enjoyable and efficient. As the world continues to grapple with the pandemic, residential architecture will continue to evolve to meet the changes. While the ancient architecture was primarily concerned with aesthetic and constructive tasks, modern design problems are strongly aimed at optimizing infrastructure around the physical center. However, 2019 was a turning point in this understanding. People actually had to stay away in order to survive. 2 meters of required distance in public spaces, slowly evolved into a possibility for working, studying, and living efficiently even kilometers away from the physical business center. Еvery function of modern life was transformed. Code became gold. Bedrooms started turning into classrooms, hallways into gyms, and dining tables were used as office desks. People had to descale their public relationships and upscale their personal space. While adding a few more rooms to an existing house is not a problem, it is almost impossible to add any rooms to the tight grid of an apartment building. The presentation will display examples and comparisons between apartment buildings, offices, and houses. In this context, the author proposes a renewed lifestyle program – where each home becomes a scaled model of the city and brings together all the essential functions of people’s daily lives such as work, education, sport, and entertainment.This proposal for an enriched residential function stems from the impact that architecture has on people’s upbringing and worldviews. The proposed program also includes formulated principles for the selection of materials for the construction, exterior, and interior of the building, according to cost and effectiveness over time. As a conclusion of the presentation, considering the development of technologies, due to their necessity during Covid-19 – no less development should be expected from residential architecture in the following years.
Wednesday 5 April 2023An Educational Visit to Selected Islands
Thursday 6 April 2023Visiting the Oracle of Delphi