Remus Pravalie, Lecturer University of Bucharest, Romania. Title: Analysis of Forest Ecological Changes in Romania Based on Detecting Recent Trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index.
Edyta Rycio, PhD Student, Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute, Poland. Title: Landslide susceptibility map in the Przemysl region in the Eastern part of The Carpathians in Poland.
The Polish Carpathians are built by overthrust of flysch nappes. There are two nappes in the Przemyśl region: Skole Unit and Zglobice-Stebnic Unit, which during orogeny overlapped the autochthonous Miocene of the Carpathian Foredeep. These formations during the Pleistocene and the Hollocene were covered by thicker layers of loess, glacial till and river sediments of the San and Wiar valleys. In general , landslide is one type of mass movement tiggered by gravity. Describes type of movement and type of material moved. Landslide is also the landform that results from such movement. Landslides are a very common occurrence in the Polish part of the Carpathians and their role in slope shaping is great. There are generaly caused by climatic conditions like humidity and precipitation under specific lithological and tectonic conditions. In the world literature, there are many publications from different regions of the world, in which attempts were made to prepare maps of landslide susceptibility: Bonham-Carter et al. (1989), Thurston I Degg (1996), Derbyshire et al. (2000), Pandey and Sharma (2017). There are just a few publications. In Poland, there is also a growing interest in this issue, to mention only such names as: Długosz (2011), Kamiński (2007, 2012), Mrozek (2013), Małka (2015). There are many effective methods of calculating landslide susceptibility maps using GIS tools and software. The most popular are: weithts of evidence, neural network method, frequensy ratio method or statistical index method. The last method was used for the calculations. Counting landslide susceptibility maps consists in crossing several thematic maps with a landslide map. The author of this work, limited herself to only 3 thematic maps, defining the passive factors of landslide formation, i.e. geological structure (geology layer), slope inclination (slope layer) and slope exposure (exposure layer). Landslides from the Przemyśl region were selected for the research. The assumption of the presented method of calculating the landslide susceptibility is “crossing” the landslide map with individual thematic maps. It is possible to calculate the surface landslide index for each selected class of the thematic map and compare it with the surface landslide index for the study area. In this way, we obtain the so-called index maps, i.e. we assign the calculated indexes to the appropriate classes of thematic maps. For each pixel, the index values were summed and a landslide susceptibility map was obtained for the Przemyśl region. The susceptibility to landslides was determined on a 5-point probability scale and the map separates areas with: very low, low, medium, high and very high susceptibility. It is a simplified map. The aim of the work was to understand the philosophy of the chosen method. During the calculations, it was proved that the areas most susceptible to landslides are: areas with sandstone and shaless under loess , areas with slope angle is 7-11 degrees and slopes with western exposure.
Vsevolod Yutsis, Professor, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Mexico. Title: Geophysics of the Intraplate Volcanic Fields. Los Encinos and Santo Domingo Case, Central Mexico.
The volcanic fields of Los Encinos (CVLE) and Santo Domingo (CVSD), located northwest of San Luis Potosí – northeast of Zacatecas, and northeast of San Luis Potosí respectively, are located on the trace of an apparent regional line whose origin has been suggested as a possible basement fault. This structure has an approximate N50W orientation whose distribution appears to extend more than 200 km from the northeast of Zacatecas to the central part of San Luis Potosí. Both fields are made up of intraplate mafic rocks with alkaline affinity, although in the case of Campo Santo Domingo they are more recent products presenting Middle Pleistocene ages (0.35 to 0.45 Ma.), while the Los Encinos rocks span Medium to Late Miocene (13.6 to 10.6 Ma.). On the trace of this lineament there is also more recent volcanism (Eocene-Oligocene) with a calco-alkaline composition, which suggests a repeated influence on the rise of magmas at least since the Paleogene. The hypothesis of this study is the presence of a basement fault that has favored the ascent of intraplate magmas in these volcanic fields. This is still controversial since no evidence has been presented to prove the presence of a deep structure in the lithosphere that could have channeled the magmatism. To fill this gap we carry out an integrate study of geophysical methods (gravimetric, geomagnetic, electromagnetic (TEM and MT / AMT soundings), as well as gamma ray spectrometry and radon concentration measurement) in combination with a structural geological study and the application of some remote sensing tools that allowed obtaining information on the geological-structural configuration of both the surface and the subsoil of the region. Preliminary results of this study are presented in this work. Author is grateful to CONACYT Project A1-S-29604 “Control estructural del vulcanismo intraplaca en los campos volcánicos de Los Encinos y Santo Domingo (San Luis Potosí, México) a través de métodos geológico-geofísicos”.
21:00-22:00 Greek Night
Tuesday 13 July 2021
08:00-10:00 Urban Walk
10:00-10:45 Yassine Et-Tayea, PhD Student, Hassan First University of Settat, Morocco. Title: Mineralogical and Physico-chemical Characterization of Bentonite from Iboughardain Area (North-eastern Rif, Morroco).
The Iboughardain deposit is located in the Kert basin (North-eastern Rif, Morocco). The outcrop of bentonite appears in the form of alteration of subhorizontal layers of trachy-andesitic tuffs and cinerites. This alteration is in contact with the greenish marls of the Miocene. Analyses and studies carried out on samples collected in the study area demonstrated a qualitative and semi-quantitative mineralogy mainly composed of variable contents of montmorillonite and associated minerals. Indeed, the chemical composition mostly consist of aluminosilicates which reflects high rates of SiO2 and Al2O3 and relatively sodic than calcic (dominance of albite over anorthite) based on the high percentages of Na2O. However, the other oxides express medium percentages of Fe2O3 (2.58%), K2O (1.63%), MgO (3.526), and MnO (0.04). The bentonites show significant swelling properties based on the calculation of swelling index. The results obtained from the chemical and mineralogical composition, and the swelling index allowed us to characterize the bentonite of Iboughardain area.
11:00-11:45 Mattia Fragola, PhD Student, University of Salento, Italy. Title: Back-Trajectory Impact on Airborne Bacterial Pathogenic and non-Pathogenic Species at a Central Mediterranean Coastal Site.
The 16SrRNA gene metabarcoding approach has been applied to the DNA extracted from PM10 samples co llected at the Mathematics and Physics Department of the University of Salento in Lecce, a coastal site of South eastern Italy, to characterize the main structure of the airborne bacterial community. In more detail, the main goal of this study has been to identify bacterial pathogenic and non pathogenic species and investigate their relationships with the long range transported air masses. The monitoring coastal site of this study can be considered representative of the Central Mediterranean, being locat ed on a narrow peninsular area in the Central Mediterranean basin. Therefore, peninsular area in the Central Mediterranean basin. Therefore, it it is affected by a large variety of aerosol sources of different is affected by a large variety of aerosol sources of different type and origintype and origin because of itsbecause of its geographical locationgeographical location. M. More specore specifically,ifically, mineral dust from the Sahara Desert and surrounding mineral dust from the Sahara Desert and surrounding arid regions, polluted particles from urban and industrial areas of Northern and Eastern Europe, sea arid regions, polluted particles from urban and industrial areas of Northern and Eastern Europe, sea spray from the spray from the Mediterranean Sea itself or from the Atlantic Ocean, and biomassMediterranean Sea itself or from the Atlantic Ocean, and biomass–burburning particles produced mostly in summer by forest fires ning particles produced mostly in summer by forest fires are commonly advected at the study siteare commonly advected at the study site (e.g.(e.g.,, Perrone et al., 2014)Perrone et al., 2014).. The HYbrid SingleThe HYbrid Single–Particle Lagrangian Integrated Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model version 4.8 from NOAA/ARTrajectory (HYSPLIT) model version 4.8 from NOAA/ARL (https://www.ready.noaa.gov/) has been used to calculate L (https://www.ready.noaa.gov/) has been used to calculate analytical backanalytical back–trajectories and detect the low altitude air masses that reached the study site. trajectories and detect the low altitude air masses that reached the study site. A new approach based on the integration of different analytical techniques has been used to investi A new approach based on the integration of different analytical techniques has been used to investigate the role of air mass gate the role of air mass backback–trajectories on the bacterial community shaping in different seasons. trajectories on the bacterial community shaping in different seasons. In particular, In particular, PCA (Principal Component Analysis), PCA (Principal Component Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and NMDS (NonCCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and NMDS (Non–metric MultiDimensional Scaling) have beenmetric MultiDimensional Scaling) have been applied to the applied to the bacterial phyla and genera relativebacterial phyla and genera relative–abundance data. abundance data. Then, these techniques Then, these techniques have allowed identifying have allowed identifying the relationships between the relationships between pathogenic and nonpathogenic and non–pathogenic bapathogenic baccterteriia a andand the samples affectethe samples affected by d by continental, desert dust, and marinecontinental, desert dust, and marine particlesparticles (e.g., (e.g., Romano et al., 2019). Romano et al., 2019). TThe relationships between the bacterial community structure and the he relationships between the bacterial community structure and the main chemical main chemical tracers of pollution tracers of pollution sourcessources have have also also been investigated to understand and support our main experimental findings.been investigated to understand and support our main experimental findings. In conclusion, this work has highlighted that changes of long In conclusion, this work has highlighted that changes of long–rangerange–transported air massetransported air masses, in addition to other variables like s, in addition to other variables like meteorological parameters and seasonal variations, have likely been responsible for the shape of the airborne bacterial meteorological parameters and seasonal variations, have likely been responsible for the shape of the airborne bacterial community of PM10 samples, pointing out the fundamental role of the atmosphere in the airborne bacommunity of PM10 samples, pointing out the fundamental role of the atmosphere in the airborne bacteria transport.cteria transport. Perrone et al. (2014) Atmos. Res. 145 Perrone et al. (2014) Atmos. Res. 145–146, 152146, 152–167. 167. Romano et al. (2019) Sci. Total Environ. 697, 134020. Romano et al. (2019) Sci. Total Environ. 697, 134020. Keywords (at Keywords (at least three)
12:00-12:45 Anastasia Nikologianni, Research Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK. Title: Urban Farming, Ecosystems and Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Environments. The Case of SATURN Pan European Programme.
The ‘System and sustainable Approach to virTuous interaction of Urban and Rural LaNdscapes’ (SATURN) project is exploring how resilience at a city scale might be achieved and how the issues of landscape fragmentation, governance and land management can be addressed resulting to a sustainable future. The EIT Climate-KIC SATURN project is based on a collaboration between three cities of very different scales and contexts, those of Gothenburg in western Sweden, Trento in northern Italy, and Birmingham in the United Kingdom. This paper focuses on the ways in which urban farming can become an important tool to mitigate or adapt to climate change in urban environments by exploring how the three major cities of SATURN deal with these concepts. Using the experience gained throughout the SATURN project as well as the strong communication developed within the consortium, the paper introduces the reasons why urban farming is not just an agricultural activity, but it relates to climate awareness, health and an element of community. With the examples of different urban farming models, this research presents the fully entrepreneurial model of Gothenburg, where public underutilized land is matched with farmers in order for them to scale up their businesses and provide sustainable food, by limiting the shipping distance of the produce. In the Trento case, a land lease scheme named ‘banca della terra’ has been introduced into a national law, aiming to provide support to farmers and make use of both public and private underutilised land with the creation of a matchmaking platform. Issues of land fragmentation create challenges for sustainable use and successful entrepreneurial activity in agriculture in the Trentino region. The case of Birmingham presents a different model where farming in an urban environment is mostly seen as a support to communities, mental health and awareness, rather than an entrepreneurial activity. The innovation in this paper comes in the form of different European models related to urban agriculture and best practices, demonstrating how abandoned and underutilised public and private land can be regenerated and become an active part of the urban realm. SATURN aims to create a framework presenting sustainable farming models where different examples are tested across the three core cities and other European and global countries (eg. Slovenia, Greece, Spain, New Zealand) focusing on new ways of sustainable agriculture and a viable scheme for public and private underutilised land. The goal behind this project is for the three cities to exchange knowledge and identify innovative characteristics from each model that can work in their own region, providing a new concept for urban farming that can relate and support the fight against climate crisis while at the same time, supporting its community, business and economy. Insights on the ways in which the three different models operate, as well as results on how farming in an urban environment can enhance resilient cities are discussed in this paper.
Majid Asadnabizadeh, PhD Candidate, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Poland. Title: UN Climate Change Summit: What’s at Stake in COP26?
This research address the issue of carbon market within UN Climate change summit (COP26). I am carrying out the systemic review of literatures based on Qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) for analysis. The search identiﬁed some published qualitative Research studies on the topic of carbon market and COP 26. All studies are considered and showing 4 main themes such as Article 6, Market mechanisms, Funding for Loss and damage and etc. The finding themes were related to Inter-state level orientation that caused the importance of carbon market for COP26.
Jesus Jose Soriano Bermudez, PhD Student, University of Huelva, Spain. Title: Drought after a Fire, the Survival of the Genus Quercus in Extreme Conditions.
Mediterranean vegetation as we know it is the result of selective processes that occurred in the Pliocene, the frequent fires of the Tertiary and a process of drying out the climate that occurred after the last ice age. The presence of fire in the ecosystem favours the appearance of xerophilic species, due to the alterations it produces on the hydrological cycle. In a context of global warming where we see an increase of more than 0.5ºC in the average temperature in the Iberian Peninsula in the last 50 years. Consequently, an increase in the effects of the summer drought, typical of Mediterranean climates, is expected under these conditions. In this context, is necessary to know the characteristics of the Mediterranean forests in order to react and improve the plans for conservation and repopulation of this ecosystem. Forest management is framed within the principles of conservation of biological biodiversity, environmental protection and sustainability. In order to achieve these principles it is necessary consider different aspects related to the estimation, maintenance or increase of the genetic variability of forest species, as they largely determine the future evolution of populations, their adaptation to the environment and their conservation. In this study, we have focused on two of these typical and emblematic xerophilous species of Mediterranean forests such us Quercus ilex and Quercus suber. The existence of genetic variation in forest species linked to their geographical distribution and the different environmental conditions of the different populations is a known fact, and the Quercus genus is no exception. That is why in this research a series of populations of Q. ilex and Q. suber from different environmental conditions of Huelva of have been selected, in order to carry out a deep characterization of the phenotypic characteristics that gives them a better adaptation to extreme drought after a fire. To highlight the differences of the different populations were subjected to stress conditions due to drought, with a previous hardering. After that, some morphological parameters such as plant size, stem diameter and the number of leaves of each individual were analyzed over time in order to see the effects of drought on the development of individuals of the different populations in stages of juvenile development. On the other hand, we analyze the water content of the different populations in order to find which individual is the one that best manages water resources in a drought situation. This essay aims to better understand the Q. ilex and Q. suber populations, due to its importance in forest management tasks. This biodiversity search task is vital to select “elite” individuals from populations with respect to their ability to resist drought. This will facilitate better management of the Mediterranean forest.
15:00-15:45 Ivar Zekker, PhD Student, University of Estonian Life Sciences, Estonia. Title: Deammonification Nitrogen Removal and Anodic Biofilms Use in Microbial Fuel Cell Technology.
Dominika Szoldrowska, Researcher, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland. Title: Sewage Sludge as a Source of the Key Nutrients for Plant Growth.